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Пол Фейерабенд

Дата рождения: 13. Январь 1924
Дата смерти: 11. Февраль 1994

Пол Карл Фе́йерабенд — учёный, философ, методолог науки. Родился в Вене , в разное время жил в Англии, США, Новой Зеландии, Италии, Швейцарии. С 1958 по 1989 год работал профессором философии в Калифорнийском университете в Беркли.

Основные работы:

«Против метода» ,

«Наука в свободном обществе» ,

«Прощай, благоразумие» или «Прощай, разум» в других переводах .

Фейерабенд стал известен благодаря своим анархистским взглядам на процесс научного познания, и утверждениям, что в науке не существует универсальных методологических правил. На основе этих идей он создал концепцию эпистемологического анархизма. Он был влиятельной фигурой в философии науки и в социологии научного познания. Критика Фейерабенда оказала существенное влияние на развитие теорий науки Томаса Куна, Имре Лакатоса и др.

Цитаты Пол Фейерабенд

„Действовать в конкретной жизненной ситуации, исходя из универсальных стандартных предписаний, — это и значит действовать неразумно!“

„The best education consists in immunizing people against systematic attempts at education.“

„Without a constant misuse of language there cannot be any discovery, any progress“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

„Teachers' using grades and the fear of failure mould the brains of the young until they have lost every ounce of imagination they might once have possessed.“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

„A scientist, an artist, a citizen is not like a child who needs papa methodology and mama rationality to give him security and direction; he can take care of himself, for he is the inventor not only of laws, theories, pictures, plays, forms of music, ways of dealing with his fellow man, institutions but also of entire world views, he is the inventor of entire forms of life.“ Science in a Free Society

„Science is essentially an anarchic enterprise: theoretical anarchism is more humanitarian and more likely to encourage progress than its law-and-order alternatives.“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

„All religions are good 'in principle' - but unfortunately this abstract Good has only rarely prevented their practitioners from behaving like bastards.“ Farewell to Reason

„We need a dream-world in order to discover the features of the real world we think we inhabit.“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

„The separation of state and church must be complemented by the separation of state and science, that most recent, most aggressive, and most dogmatic religious institution.“

„Somewhere among the commotion I grew rather depressed. The depression stayed with me for over a year; it was like an animal, a well-defined, spatially localizable thing. I would wake up, open my eyes, listen-is it here or isn’t it? No sign of it. Perhaps it’s asleep. Perhaps it will leave me alone today. Carefully, very carefully, I get out of bed. All is quiet. I go to the kitchen, start breakfast. Not a sound. TV-Good Morning America, David what’s-his-name, a guy I can’t stand. I eat and watch the guests. Slowly the food fills my stomach and gives me strength. Now a quick excursion to the bathroom, and out for my morning walk-and here she is, my faithful depression: “Did you think you could leave without me?" I had often warned my students not to identify with their work. I told them, “if you want to achieve something, if you want to write a book, paint a picture, be sure that the center of your existence if somewhere else and that it’s solidly grounded; only then will you be able to keep your cool and laugh at the attacks that are bound to come." I myself had followed this advice in the past, but now I was alone, sick with some unknown affliction; my private life was in a mess, and I was without a defense. I often wished I had never written that fucking book.“ Killing Time: The Autobiography of Paul Feyerabend

„The only principle that does not inhibit progress is: anything goes.“

„An anarchist is like an undercover agent who plays the game of Reason in order to undercut the authority of Reason (Truth, Honesty, Justice and so on).“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

„Progress has always been achieved by probing well-entrenched and well-founded forms of life with unpopular and unfounded values. This is how man gradually freed himself from fear and from the tyranny of unexamined systems.“ Problems of Empiricism: Philosophical Papers: Problems of Empiricism v. 2 (Philosophical Papers

„My intention is not to replace one set of general rules by another such set: my intention is, rather, to convince the reader that all methodologies, even the most obvious ones, have their limits. The best way to show this is to demonstrate the limits and even the irrationality of some rules which she, or he, is likely to regard as basic. In the case that induction (including induction by falsification) this means demonstrating how well the counterinductive procedure can be supported by argument.“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

„The pygmies, for example, or the Mindoro of the Philippines, do not want equal rights – they just want to be left alone.“ Farewell to Reason

„In the first case it emerges that the evidence that might refute a theory can often be unearthed only with the help of an incompatible alternative: the advice (which goes back to Newton and which is still popular today) to use alternatives only when refutations have already discredited the orthodox theory puts the cart before the horse. Also, some of the most important formal properties of a theory are found by contrast, and not by analysis. A scientist who wishes to maximize the empirical content of the views he holds and who wants to understand them as clearly as he possibly can must therefore introduce other views; that is, he must adopt a pluralistic methodology. He must compare ideas with other ideas rather than with 'experience' and he must try to improve rather than discard the views that have failed in the competition. Proceeding in this way he will retain the theories of man and cosmos that are found in Genesis, or in the Pimander, he will elaborate them and use them to measure the success of evolution and other 'modern' views. He may then discover that the theory of evolution is not as good as is generally assumed and that it must be supplemented, or entirely replaced, by an improved version of Genesis. Knowledge so conceived is not a series of self-consistent theories that converges towards an ideal view; it is not a gradual approach to truth. It is rather an ever increasing ocean of mutually incompatible alternatives, each single theory, each fairy-tale, each myth that is part of the collection forcing the others in greater articulation and all of them contributing, via this process of competition, to the development of our consciousness. Nothing is ever settled, no view can ever be omitted from a comprehensive account. Plutarch or Diogenes Laertius, and not Dirac or von Neumann, are the models for presenting a knowledge of this kind in which the history of a science becomes an inseparable part of the science itself - it is essential for its further development as well as for giving content to the theories it contains at any particular moment. Experts and laymen, professionals and dilettani, truth-freaks and liars - they all are invited to participate in the contest and to make their contribution to the enrichment of our culture. The task of the scientist, however, is no longer 'to search for the truth', or 'to praise god', or 'to synthesize observations', or 'to improve predictions'. These are but side effects of an activity to which his attention is now mainly directed and which is 'to make the weaker case the stronger' as the sophists said, and thereby to sustain the motion of the whole.“ Against Method: Outline of an Anarchistic Theory of Knowledge

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