Уильям Пенн цитаты

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Уильям Пенн

Дата рождения: 14. Октябрь 1644
Дата смерти: 30. Июль 1718

Уи́льям Пенн — ключевая фигура в ранней истории английских колоний в Америке, Пенн почитается в США как один из отцов-основателей государства и его первой столицы — Филадельфии . Будучи квакером-пацифистом и проповедником веротерпимости, он основал в качестве «убежища для свободомыслящих европейцев» колонию, которую назвали — Пенсильвания . Был одним из первых защитников демократии и свободы вероисповедания. Особо отмечают его участие в составлении мирного договора с коренными жителями Америки — племенем ленапе, исторически заселявшим территорию Пенсильвании.

В 1681 г. король Карл II передал часть своих американских земель Уильяму Пенну, таким образом был уплачен долг короля отцу Пенна. В состав земель, полученных Пенном, входили современная Пенсильвания и Делавэр. Пенн прибыл в Америку в 1682 г. и разместился в Нью-Касле. Тогда же состоялось первое общее собрание колонистов, которые признали нового владельца. В этом же году Пенн отправился вверх по реке Делавэр и в 1683 г. основал Филадельфию. Однако не все было гладко. Правление квакера было нежелательным для голландских, шведских и английских поселенцев, которые занимали земли нынешнего штата Делавэр. Почти сразу же началась борьба за независимость этих территорий, и в 1704 году они достигли своей цели, когда «три нижних графства» Пенсильвании образовали новую полуавтономную колонию — Нижний Делавэр со столицей в Нью-Касле.

С самых первых лет пребывания в Америке Пенн выступал за объединение английских колоний. Демократические принципы, которые он изложил в конституции Пенсильвании послужили основой для конституции Соединённых Штатов. Будучи пацифистом, Пенн серьёзно относился к проблеме мирного урегулирования конфликтов. Он разработал перспективный проект для Соединённых Штатов Европы, в котором предложил создание Европейской Ассамблеи из депутатов, которые могли бы обсуждать и выносить решения по различным спорам, не прибегая к насилию. Это даёт право считать его первым мыслителем, предложившим создание Европейского парламента.Человек твёрдых религиозных убеждений, Пенн написал множество произведений, в которых он призывал верующих присоединиться к духу первохристианства. Несколько раз он отбывал заключение в Тауэре, и его книга «Без креста нет короны» , которую он написал, находясь в тюрьме, стала классикой христианской литературы. Wikipedia

„Any government is free to the people under it (whatever be the frame) where the law rules, and the people are a party to those laws, and more than this is tyranny, oligarchy, or confusion.“

—  William Penn

Frame of Government (1682)
Контексте: I know what is said by the several admirers of monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, which are the rule of one, a few, and many, and are the three common ideas of government, when men discourse on the subject. But I chuse to solve the controversy with this small distinction, and it belongs to all three: Any government is free to the people under it (whatever be the frame) where the law rules, and the people are a party to those laws, and more than this is tyranny, oligarchy, or confusion.

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„A good End cannot sanctifie evil Means; nor must we ever do Evil, that Good may come of it.“

—  William Penn

537-539
Fruits of Solitude (1682), Part I
Контексте: A good End cannot sanctifie evil Means; nor must we ever do Evil, that Good may come of it. Some Folks think they may Scold, Rail, Hate, Rob and Kill too; so it be but for God's sake. But nothing in us unlike him, can please him.

„It is a severe Rebuke upon us, that God makes us so many Allowances, and we make so few to our Neighbor“

—  William Penn

549
Fruits of Solitude (1682), Part I
Контексте: It is a severe Rebuke upon us, that God makes us so many Allowances, and we make so few to our Neighbor: As if Charity had nothing to do with Religion; Or Love with Faith, that ought to work by it.

„Love is indeed Heaven upon Earth; since Heaven above would not be Heaven without it: For where there is not Love; there is Fear: But perfect Love casts out Fear.“

—  William Penn

554-556
Fruits of Solitude (1682), Part I
Контексте: Love is indeed Heaven upon Earth; since Heaven above would not be Heaven without it: For where there is not Love; there is Fear: But perfect Love casts out Fear. And yet we naturally fear most to offend what we most Love. What we Love, we'll Hear; what we Love, we'll Trust; and what we Love, we'll serve, ay, and suffer for too. If you love me says our Blessed Redeemer) keep my Commandments. Why? Why then he'll Love us; then we shall be his Friends; then he'll send us the Comforter; then whatsover we ask, we shall receive; and then where he is we shall be also, and that for ever. Behold the Fruits of Love; the Power, Vertue, Benefit and Beauty of Love! Love is above all; and when it prevails in us all, we shall all be Lovely, and in Love with God and one with another.

„They that love beyond the world cannot be separated by it. Death cannot kill, what never dies.“

—  William Penn

127 - 134
Fruits of Solitude (1682), Part II
Контексте: They that love beyond the world cannot be separated by it. Death cannot kill, what never dies. Nor can Spirits ever be divided that love and live in the same Divine Principle; the Root and Record of their Friendship. If Absence be not death, neither is theirs. Death is but Crossing the World, as Friends do the Seas; They live in one another still. For they must needs be present, that love and live in that which is Omnipresent. In this Divine Glass, they see Face to Face; and their Converse is Free, as well as Pure. This is the Comfort of Friends, that though they may be said to Die, yet their Friendship and Society are, in the best Sense, ever present, because Immortal.

„Wherefore governments rather depend upon men, than men upon governments. Let men be good, and the government cannot be bad; if it be ill, they will cure it. But, if men be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor to warp and spoil it to their turn.“

—  William Penn

Frame of Government (1682)
Контексте: Governments, like clocks, go from the motion men give them; and as governments are made and moved by men, so by them they are ruined too. Wherefore governments rather depend upon men, than men upon governments. Let men be good, and the government cannot be bad; if it be ill, they will cure it. But, if men be bad, let the government be never so good, they will endeavor to warp and spoil it to their turn.

„Religion it self is nothing else but Love to God and Man. He that lives in Love lives in God, says the Beloved Disciple: And to be sure a Man can live no where better.“

—  William Penn

551-553
Fruits of Solitude (1682), Part I
Контексте: Did we believe a final Reckoning and Judgment; or did we think enough of what we do believe, we would allow more Love in Religion than we do; since Religion it self is nothing else but Love to God and Man. He that lives in Love lives in God, says the Beloved Disciple: And to be sure a Man can live no where better. It is most reasonable Men should value that Benefit, which is most durable. Now Tongues shall cease, and Prophecy fail, and Faith shall be consummated in Sight, and Hope in Enjoyment; but Love remains.

„This is the Comfort of Friends, that though they may be said to Die, yet their Friendship and Society are, in the best Sense, ever present, because Immortal.“

—  William Penn

127 - 134
Fruits of Solitude (1682), Part II
Контексте: They that love beyond the world cannot be separated by it. Death cannot kill, what never dies. Nor can Spirits ever be divided that love and live in the same Divine Principle; the Root and Record of their Friendship. If Absence be not death, neither is theirs. Death is but Crossing the World, as Friends do the Seas; They live in one another still. For they must needs be present, that love and live in that which is Omnipresent. In this Divine Glass, they see Face to Face; and their Converse is Free, as well as Pure. This is the Comfort of Friends, that though they may be said to Die, yet their Friendship and Society are, in the best Sense, ever present, because Immortal.

„Time is what we want most, but what, alas! we use worst; and for which God will certainly most strictly reckon with us, when Time shall be no more.“

—  William Penn

The Preface
Fruits of Solitude (1682)
Контексте: There is nothing of which we are apt to be so lavish as of Time, and about which we ought to be more solicitous; since without it we can do nothing in this World. Time is what we want most, but what, alas! we use worst; and for which God will certainly most strictly reckon with us, when Time shall be no more.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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