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Никлас Луман

Дата рождения: 8. Декабрь 1927
Дата смерти: 6. Ноябрь 1998

Ни́клас Лу́ман — немецкий социолог.

В 1946—1949 годах Луман получил юридическое образование во Фрайбургском университете. С 1954 по 1962 г. работал в Администрации земли Нижняя Саксония, в Министерстве по делам культуры. В 1960-61 гг., взяв отпуск, учился в Гарварде у Толкотта Парсонса, а по возвращении на родину, занимался изучением теории управления. С 1965 г. занимается научной работой, в 1966 году защитил сразу две диссертации по социологии. Начал работать в Мюнстерском университете, а в 1968 году — профессор в Билефельдском университете, где и работал до выхода на пенсию в 1993 году.

В начале своей профессорской работы, Луман ставит перед собой следующую задачу: за 30 лет создать полное описание общества; решением каковой задачи он и занимался всю жизнь. Книга «Общество общества» , вышедшая перед самой смертью, стала венцом этой деятельности.

Разделял научные взгляды нейробиологов Франсиско Варелы и Умберто Матураны на природу живых и социальных систем, в своих работах применял биологическую концепцию «аутопойезиса» .

Всего Луман написал 77 книг и около 250 статей по темам теории социального познания и системной теории общества.

Помимо научной деятельности Луман был хозяином пивной Pons в родном Люнебурге. Никогда не преподавал в Люнебургском университете.

„Смысл — это продукт терапий, использующих смысл, а не какое-то свойство мира...“

„Humans cannot communicate; not even their brains can communicate; not even their conscious minds can communicate. Only communication can communicate.“

„In the twentieth century, one encounters artworks that seek to cancel the difference between a real and an imagined reality by presenting themselves in ways that make them indistinguishable from real objects. Should we take this trend as an internal reaction of art against itself? … No ordinary object insists on being taken for an ordinary thing, but a work that does so betrays itself by this very effort. The function of art in such a case is to reproduce the difference of art. But the mere fact that art seeks to cancel this difference and fails in its effort to do so perhaps says more about art than could any excuse or critique.“ Art as a Social System

„Was wir über unsere Gesellschaft, ja über die Welt, in der wir leben, wissen, wissen wir durch die Massenmedien“ The Reality of the Mass Media

„El surgimiento del Estado soberano moderno basado en el monopolio de la toma de decisiones sobre el uso de la violencia física, y su inflación a un grado de complejidad que difícilmente puede controlarse, es el ejemplo más significativo de su desarrollo en el ámbito social general. Al mismo tiempo, esta teoría del poder explica el modo en que esta situación es propicia para la revolución, es decir, para el recurso de la violencia con el objeto de modificar un sistema incontrolablemente complejo, por medio de la progresión regresiva.“

„Communication is improbable.“ Love as Passion: The Codification of Intimacy

„Ideology claims to be binding for the whole society. This development leads to typical problems. As the complexity of society increases, so do the demands upon ideology as a schema for solving problems; in particular, there occurs an unsurveyable increase in the interdependencies among the individual components of an ideology, whose consistency must continue to be maintained. Changes, accommodations, and renovations in an ideology become markedly dífficult, because every small step can have unforeseeable repercussions upon the premises appealed to. The burdens upon the reflexive and opportunistic mechanisms anchored in ideology then become excessive.“ The Differentiation of Society (European Perspectives: A Series in Social Thought and Cultural Criticism)

„But within the framework of an ideology such pluralism cannot be so enlarged as to incorporate into the political system and submit to political arbitration radical structural conflicts between family life and economic development, religión and culture, personality and the need for governmental administration, or between the expected motives of agents and the methods of recruiting. In such States, political pluralism remains on a technical and instrumental level; the problem-solving capacity of the political system is built on the premise that, in the last analysis, all critical problems can be reduced to economic problems. For this reason (and because of the political ideologization of all publíc life) limits are set to the level of complexity such a society can reach.“ The Differentiation of Society (European Perspectives: A Series in Social Thought and Cultural Criticism)

„Societies to be integrated politically through an ideology are typically planned with a concern for the “output” of specifíc, politically desirable effects. For example, planning takes place with an eye to the goals of pow er politics or today especially with an eye to the goals of economic development. Such societies favor goal programs. Goal programs can be meaningful and successful only if the input of the political system can be varied and selected in conformity with the desired results— that is, only if the political system is relatively free to determine what kinds of information will influence it. The social expectations, demands, and conditions of political support must then be regulated ideologically, as soon as they are loosened from the unchanging bonds of tradition through the process of civilization and freed for a greater mobility. “Public Opinión” must be regulated in such a way that the dominance of ideological values and goals is not put into question and that there is only a technical and instrumental discussion about the best means by which to realize them.“ The Differentiation of Society (European Perspectives: A Series in Social Thought and Cultural Criticism)

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