Эдвард Теллер цитаты

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Эдвард Теллер

Дата рождения: 15. Январь 1908
Дата смерти: 9. Сентябрь 2003

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Э́двард Те́ллер — американский физик-теоретик венгерского происхождения, широко известный как «отец водородной бомбы». Он внёс значительный вклад в ядерную и молекулярную физику, спектроскопию и физику поверхности. Его расширение теории Энрико Ферми о бета-распаде, а именно понятие о переходах Гамова — Теллера, стало ключевой вехой в приложениях этой теории, а эффект Яна — Теллера и теория Брунауэра — Эммета — Теллера сохранили свою изначальную формулировку и до сих пор являются опорой в физике и химии. Теллер также сделал вклад в теорию Томаса — Ферми, предшественницу теории функционала плотности, которая является стандартным инструментом в объяснении сложных молекул с точки зрения квантовой механики. В 1953 году Теллер, в соавторстве с Николасом Метрополисом и Маршаллом Розенблютом, написал статью, ставшую отправной точкой для применения метода Монте-Карло в статистической механике.

Теллер эмигрировал в США в 1930-е годы и был одним из первых сотрудников Манхэттенского проекта, связанного с разработкой первых атомных бомб. В этот период он также приложил большие усилия для разработки первых образцов термоядерного оружия, однако их реализация была отложена до окончания Второй мировой войны. После громкого свидетельства против своего коллеги по Лос-Аламосской лаборатории Роберта Оппенгеймера в слушании о допуске последнего к секретным сведениям, Теллер подвергся остракизму в научном сообществе. Он продолжал находить поддержку в правительстве США и военно-исследовательских институтах, в частности, благодаря своей пропаганде в защиту развития ядерной энергетики, мощного ядерного арсенала и всесторонних ядерных испытательных программ. Он стал одним из основателей Ливерморской национальной лаборатории имени Лоуренса, и долгое время был её руководителем и помощником руководителя.

В свои последние годы Теллер стал известен в качестве защитника дискуссионных технологических проектов по решению как военных, так и мирных задач, в том числе он выступал в поддержку создания искусственной гавани на Аляске с помощью термоядерного оружия . Он был яростным защитником рейганской Стратегической оборонной инициативы . В продолжение своей жизни Теллер прославился как своими научными способностями, так и сложными межличностными отношениями и непредсказуемыми личностными качествами, и считается одним из прототипов доктора Стрейнджлава в одноимённом фильме 1964 года.

Цитаты Эдвард Теллер

„The idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed: We needed Him desperately but had not seen Him in many thousands of years.“

— Edward Teller
Context: Religion was not an issue in my family; indeed, it was never discussed. My only religious training came because the Minta required that all students take classes in their respective religions. My family celebrated one holiday, the Day of Atonement, when we all fasted. Yet my father said prayers for his parents on Saturdays and on all the Jewish holidays. The idea of God that I absorbed was that it would be wonderful if He existed: We needed Him desperately but had not seen Him in many thousands of years. Memoirs: A Twentieth Century Journey In Science And Politics., (2002) by Edward Teller, Basic Books, p. 32.

„If we stay strong, then I believe we can stabilize the world and have peace based on force.“

— Edward Teller
Context: If we stay strong, then I believe we can stabilize the world and have peace based on force. Now, peace based on force is not as good as peace based on agreement, but in the terrible world in which we live, in the world where the Russians have enslaved many millions of human beings, in the world where they have killed men, I think that for the time being the only peace we can have is the peace based on force. Furthermore, I do not think that this peace based on force is, can be, or should be, an ultimate end. Our ultimate end must be precisely what Dr. Pauling says, peace based on agreement, on understanding, on universally agreed and enforced law. I think this is a wonderful idea, but peace based on force buys the necessary time, and in this time we can work for better understanding, for closer collaboration, first with the countries which are closest to us, which we understand better, our allies, the western countries, the NATO countries, which believe in human liberties as we do. Then, as soon as possible, with the rest of the free world, and eventually, I hope, with the whole world, including Russia, even though it may take many years to come. Debating Linus Pauling, in [http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/peace/papers/1958p2.1.html The Nuclear Bomb Tests...Is Fallout Overrated? : Fallout and Disarmament KQED-TV, San Francisco (20 February 1958)]

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„I do not think that this peace based on force is, can be, or should be, an ultimate end.“

— Edward Teller
Context: If we stay strong, then I believe we can stabilize the world and have peace based on force. Now, peace based on force is not as good as peace based on agreement, but in the terrible world in which we live, in the world where the Russians have enslaved many millions of human beings, in the world where they have killed men, I think that for the time being the only peace we can have is the peace based on force. Furthermore, I do not think that this peace based on force is, can be, or should be, an ultimate end. Our ultimate end must be precisely what Dr. Pauling says, peace based on agreement, on understanding, on universally agreed and enforced law. I think this is a wonderful idea, but peace based on force buys the necessary time, and in this time we can work for better understanding, for closer collaboration, first with the countries which are closest to us, which we understand better, our allies, the western countries, the NATO countries, which believe in human liberties as we do. Then, as soon as possible, with the rest of the free world, and eventually, I hope, with the whole world, including Russia, even though it may take many years to come. Debating Linus Pauling, in [http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/peace/papers/1958p2.1.html The Nuclear Bomb Tests...Is Fallout Overrated? : Fallout and Disarmament KQED-TV, San Francisco (20 February 1958)]

„Total security has never been available to anyone. To expect it is unrealistic; to imagine that it can exist is to invite disaster.“

— Edward Teller
Context: The preservation of peace and the improvement of the lot of all people require us to have faith in the rationality of humans. If we have this faith and if we pursue understanding, we have not the promise but at least the possibility of success. We should not be misled by promises. Humanity in all its history has repeatedly escaped disaster by a hair's breadth. Total security has never been available to anyone. To expect it is unrealistic; to imagine that it can exist is to invite disaster. What we do have in our technological capacities is an opportunity to use our inventiveness, our creativity, our wisdom and our understanding of our fellow beings to create a future world that is a little better than the one in which we live today. The Pursuit of Simplicity (1981), p. 151 Variant: Total security has never been available to anyone. To expect it is unrealistic; to imagine that it can exist is to invite disaster. I believe the most important aim for humanity at present is to avoid war, dictatorship, and their awful consequences. Better a Shield Than A Sword : Perspectives On Defense And Technology (1987), p. 241

„But when the temperature does rise by a few degrees over the whole globe, there is a possibility that the icecaps will start melting and the level of the oceans will begin to rise.“

— Edward Teller
Context: At present the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has risen by 2 per cent over normal. By 1970, it will be perhaps 4 per cent, by 1980, 8 per cent, by 1990, 16 per cent [about 360 parts per million, by Teller’s accounting], if we keep on with our exponential rise in the use of purely conventional fuels. By that time, there will be a serious additional impediment for the radiation leaving the earth. Our planet will get a little warmer. It is hard to say whether it will be 2 degrees Fahrenheit or only one or 5. But when the temperature does rise by a few degrees over the whole globe, there is a possibility that the icecaps will start melting and the level of the oceans will begin to rise. Well, I don’t know whether they will cover the Empire State Building or not, but anyone can calculate it by looking at the map and noting that the icecaps over Greenland and over Antarctica are perhaps five thousand feet thick. As quoted in Benjamin Franta, [https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2018/jan/01/on-its-hundredth-birthday-in-1959-edward-teller-warned-the-oil-industry-about-global-warming "On its 100th birthday in 1959, Edward Teller warned the oil industry about global warming"], ', 1 January 2018.

„All of us can be excellent, because, fortunately, we are exceedingly diverse in our ambitions and talents.“

— Edward Teller
Context: I believe in excellence. It is a basic need of every human soul. All of us can be excellent, because, fortunately, we are exceedingly diverse in our ambitions and talents. As quoted in The Martians of Science : Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century (2006) by István Hargittai, p. 251

„Among the people who knew a great deal about the hydrogen bomb, I was the only advocate of it. And that is, I think, my contribution.“

— Edward Teller
Context: At the end of the war, most people wanted to stop. I didn't. Because here was more knowledge. And in the coming uncertain period, with a dangerous man like Stalin around, and our incomplete knowledge, I felt that more knowledge is necessary. Among the people who knew a great deal about the hydrogen bomb, I was the only advocate of it. And that is, I think, my contribution. Not that I invented it, others would have — and others in the Soviet Union did. But I was the one person who put knowledge, and the availability of knowledge, above everything else. On the creation of the hydrogen bomb, in Trinity and Beyond: The Atomic Bomb Movie

„By having simplified what is known, physicists have been led into realms which as yet are anything but simple.“

— Edward Teller
Context: By having simplified what is known, physicists have been led into realms which as yet are anything but simple. That at some time, they, too, will appear as simple consequences of a theory of which no one has yet dreamed is not a statement of fact. It is a statement of faith. The Pursuit of Simplicity (1981), p. 72

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„I believe in evil. It is the property of all those who are certain of truth.“

— Edward Teller
Context: I believe in evil. It is the property of all those who are certain of truth. Despair and fanaticism are only differing manifestations of evil. As quoted in The Martians of Science : Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century (2006) by István Hargittai, p. 251

„The preservation of peace and the improvement of the lot of all people require us to have faith in the rationality of humans.“

— Edward Teller
Context: The preservation of peace and the improvement of the lot of all people require us to have faith in the rationality of humans. If we have this faith and if we pursue understanding, we have not the promise but at least the possibility of success. We should not be misled by promises. Humanity in all its history has repeatedly escaped disaster by a hair's breadth. Total security has never been available to anyone. To expect it is unrealistic; to imagine that it can exist is to invite disaster. What we do have in our technological capacities is an opportunity to use our inventiveness, our creativity, our wisdom and our understanding of our fellow beings to create a future world that is a little better than the one in which we live today. The Pursuit of Simplicity (1981), p. 151 Variant: Total security has never been available to anyone. To expect it is unrealistic; to imagine that it can exist is to invite disaster. I believe the most important aim for humanity at present is to avoid war, dictatorship, and their awful consequences. Better a Shield Than A Sword : Perspectives On Defense And Technology (1987), p. 241

„I don't want to kill anybody. I am passionately opposed to killing, but I'm even more passionately fond of freedom.“

— Edward Teller
Context: I don't want to kill anybody. I am passionately opposed to killing, but I'm even more passionately fond of freedom. The freedom of Dr. Pauling and of myself expressing our opinions freely on any subject, however broad, however far removed of our proper competence, but particularly, to be able to express our opinions in the fields we really know; this would not be possible in Russia. Debating Linus Pauling, in [http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/peace/papers/1958p2.1.html The Nuclear Bomb Tests...Is Fallout Overrated? : Fallout and Disarmament KQED-TV, San Francisco (20 February 1958)]

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„I believe in good. It is an ephemeral and elusive quality. It is the center of my beliefs, but it cannot be strengthened by talking about it.“

— Edward Teller
As quoted in The Martians of Science : Five Physicists Who Changed the Twentieth Century (2006) by István Hargittai, p. 251

„Physics is, hopefully, simple. Physicists are not.“

— Edward Teller
Conversations on the Dark Secrets of Physics (1991) by Edward Teller, Wendy Teller and Wilson Talley, Ch. 10, p. 150 footnote

„Ladies and gentlemen, I am to talk to you about energy in the future. I will start by telling you why I believe that the energy resources of the past must be supplemented. First of all, these energy resources will run short as we use more and more of the fossil fuels. But I would [... ] like to mention another reason why we probably have to look for additional fuel supplies. And this, strangely, is the question of contaminating the atmosphere. [.... ] Whenever you burn conventional fuel, you create carbon dioxide. [.... ] The carbon dioxide is invisible, it is transparent, you can’t smell it, it is not dangerous to health, so why should one worry about it?
Carbon dioxide has a strange property. It transmits visible light but it absorbs the infrared radiation which is emitted from the earth. Its presence in the atmosphere causes a greenhouse effect [.... ] It has been calculated that a temperature rise corresponding to a 10 per cent increase in carbon dioxide will be sufficient to melt the icecap and submerge New York. All the coastal cities would be covered, and since a considerable percentage of the human race lives in coastal regions, I think that this chemical contamination is more serious than most people tend to believe.“

— Edward Teller
As quoted in Benjamin Franta, [https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2018/jan/01/on-its-hundredth-birthday-in-1959-edward-teller-warned-the-oil-industry-about-global-warming "On its 100th birthday in 1959, Edward Teller warned the oil industry about global warming"], ', 1 January 2018.

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