Макс Хоркхаймер цитаты

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Макс Хоркхаймер

Дата рождения: 14. Февраль 1895
Дата смерти: 7. Июль 1973

Макс Хо́ркхаймер — немецкий философ и социолог, один из основателей Франкфуртской школы.

Родился в состоятельной еврейской семье в Штутгарте. В шестнадцатилетнем возрасте был вынужден оставить учёбу, чтобы пойти работать на заводе отца. После Первой мировой войны изучал в Мюнхенском университете философию и психологию, затем переехал во Франкфурт-на-Майне, где учился у Иоганна Корнелиуса. Там же встретился с Теодором Адорно, дав начало длительной дружбе и плодотворному сотрудничеству. В 1925 году защитил диссертацию, посвящённую Иммануилу Канту.

Профессор , а впоследствии и ректор университета во Франкфурте-на-Майне. В 1930 году также стал директором Института социальных исследований, оставаясь им до 1965 года. Возглавляя Институт, Хоркхаймер способствовал развитию на его базе неомарксистской Франкфуртской школы. После прихода к власти нацистов покинул Германию, в 1934—1949 годах находился в эмиграции в США, где был профессором Колумбийского университета.

Издавал журнал «Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung» . После войны выступил с серией публикаций по исследованию национальных и расовых предрассудков . Написанная Хоркхаймером совместно с Т. Адорно «Диалектика просвещения» явилась программным выражением философско-социологических идей Франкфуртской школы.

В развитой им т. н. критической теории общества Хоркхаймер пытался соединить почерпнутые у Карла Маркса мотивы критики буржуазного общества с идеями гегелевской диалектики и психоанализа Зигмунда Фрейда, а также этики Артура Шопенгауэра.

Цитаты Макс Хоркхаймер

„Позитивизм — это философская технократия.“

„Although most people never overcome the habit of berating the world for their difficulties, those who are too weak to make a stand against reality have no choice but to obliterate themselves by identifying with it. They are never rationally reconciled to civilization. Instead, they bow to it, secretly accepting the identity of reason and domination, of civilization and the ideal, however much they may shrug their shoulders. Well-informed cynicism is only another mode of conformity. These people willingly embrace or force themselves to accept the rule of the stronger as the eternal norm. Their whole life is a continuous effort to suppress and abase nature, inwardly or outwardly, and to identify themselves with its more powerful surrogates—the race, fatherland, leader, cliques, and tradition. For them, all these words mean the same thing—the irresistible reality that must be honored and obeyed. However, their own natural impulses, those antagonistic to the various demands of civilization, lead a devious undercover life within them.“ Eclipse of Reason

„A revolutionary career does not lead to banquets and honorary titles, interesting research and professorial wages. It leads to misery, disgrace, ingratitude, prison and a voyage into the unknown, illuminated by only an almost superhuman belief.“

„Pragmatism reflects a society that has no time to remember and meditate.“ Eclipse Of Reason

„Now that science has helped us to overcome the awe of the unknown in nature, we are the slaves of social pressures of our own making. When called upon to act independently, we cry for patterns, systems, and authorities. If by enlightenment and intellectual progress we mean the freeing of man from superstitious belief in evil forces, in demons and fairies, in blind fate--in short, the emancipation from fear--then denunciation of what is currently called reason is the greatest service reason can render.“ Eclipse of Reason

„Philosophy is overwhelmingly complicated, its procedure depressingly slow.“

„The real individuals of our time are the martyrs who have gone through infernos of suffering and degradation in their resistance to conquest and oppression, not the inflated personalities of popular culture, the conventional dignitaries. These unsung heroes consciously exposed their existence as individuals to the terroristic annihilation that others undergo unconsciously through the social process. The anonymous martyrs of the concentration camps are the symbols of the humanity that is striving to be born. The task of philosophy is to translate what they have done into language that will be heard, even though their finite voices have been silenced by tyranny.“

„The development of the proletarian elite does not take place in an academic setting. Rather, it is brought about by battles in the factories and unions, by disciplinary punishments and some very dirty fights within the parties and outside of them, by jail sentences and illegality. Students do not flock in large numbers there as they do to the lecture halls and laboratories of the bourgeoisie. The career of a revolutionary does not consists of banquets and honarary titles, of interesting research projects and professional salaries; more likely, it will acquaint them with misery, dishonory and jail and, at the end, uncertainty. These conditions are made bearable only by a super-human faith. Understandably, this way of life will not be the choice of those who are nothing more than clever.“

„The self, entirely encompassed by civilization, is dissolved in an element composed of the very inhumanity which civilization has sought from the first to escape.“ Dialectic of Enlightenment

„The more these artificial renaissances strive to keep intact the letter of the original doctrines, the more they distort the original meaning, for truth is forged in an evolution of changing and conflicting ideas. Thought is faithful to itself largely through being ready to contradict itself, while preserving, as inherent elements of truth, the memory of the processes by which it was reached. The task of critical reflection is not merely to understand the various facts in their historical development but also to see through the notion of fact itself, in its development and therefore in its relativity.“ Eclipse of Reason

„An intelligent man is not one who can merely reason correctly, but one whose mind is open to perceiving objective contents, who is able to receive the impact of their essential structures and to render it in human language; this holds also for the nature of thinking as such, and for its truth content. The neutralization of reason that deprives it of any relation to objective content and of its power of judging the latter, and that degrades it to an executive agency concerned with the how rather than with the what, transforms it to an ever-increasing extent into a mere dull apparatus for registering facts.“ Eclipse of Reason

„Nuestra misión actual es, antes bien, asegurar que en el futuro no vuelva a perderse la capacidad para la teoría y para la acción que nace de esta [... ] Debemos luchar para que la humanidad no quede desmoralizada para siempre por los terribles acontecimientos del presente, para que la fe en un futuro feliz de la sociedad, en un futuro de paz y digno del hombre, no desaparezca de la tierra.“ Critical Theory: Selected Essays

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