Мария Каллас цитаты
Дата рождения: 2. Декабрь 1923
Дата смерти: 16. Сентябрь 1977
Мария Каллас — греческая и американская певица, одна из величайших оперных певиц XX века. С самого начала выступала как драматическая колоратура, позже — как лирико-драматическое сопрано, в последние годы жизни стала исполнять партии меццо-сопрано.
Мария Каллас не ограничивалась виртуозными колоратурами в операх Беллини, Россини и Доницетти, а превратила свой голос в главное выразительное средство. Она стала универсальной певицей с репертуаром от классических опер-сериа типа «Весталки» Спонтини до последних опер Верди, веристских опер Пуччини и музыкальных драм Вагнера.
Взлёту карьеры Каллас в середине XX века сопутствовало появление в звукозаписи долгоиграющей пластинки и дружба с видным деятелем звукозаписывающей компании EMI Вальтером Легге.
Приход на сцену оперных театров нового поколения дирижёров, таких как Герберт фон Караян и Леонард Бернстайн, и режиссёров, таких как Лукино Висконти и Франко Дзеффирелли, сделал каждый спектакль с участием Марии Каллас событием. Она превратила оперу в настоящий драматический театр, заставляя даже «трели и гаммы выражать радость, беспокойство или тоску».
Введена в Зал славы журнала Gramophone.
Цитаты Мария Каллас
„Когда хочешь найти жест, когда хочешь понять, как играть на сцене, требуется только одно – прислушаться к музыке. Композитор об этом уже позаботился. Если не поленишься по-настоящему прислушаться душой и ушами – я говорю, душой и ушами, потому что ум тоже должен работать, но не слишком много, – обнаружишь в музыке каждый жест.“
— Мария Каллас
после премьеры "Нормы" 1948 года, имевшей огромный успех.
— Maria Callas
On her controversial personality and performance, quoted in Wild Women Talk Back : Audacious Advice for the Bedroom, Boardroom, and Beyond (2004) by Autumn Stephens, p. 142
„I admire Tebaldi's tone; it's beautiful — also some beautiful phrasing. Sometimes, I actually wish I had her voice.“
— Maria Callas
Discussing rival soprano Renata Tebaldi, in a television interview with Norman Ross, Chicago (17 November 1957)
„What [Tullio Serafin] said that impressed me was: "When one wants to find a gesture, when you want to find how to act on stage, all you have to do is listen to the music. The composer has already seen to that." If you take the trouble to really listen with your soul and with your ears — and I say soul and ears because the mind must work, but not too much also — you will find every gesture there. And it is all true, you know.“
— Maria Callas
On advice from Tullio Serafin, in "Harewood Conversations - 1968", an interview in Paris with Lord Harewood for the BBC (April 1968) on Maria Callas : The Callas Conversations (2004) EMI Classics DVD
„It takes a little more time to get into the role, but not very much more. In making a record you don't have the sense of projection over a distance as in an opera house. We have this microphone and this magnifies all details of a performance, all exaggerations. In the theater, you can get away with a very large, very grand phrase. For the microphone, you have to tone it down. It's the same as making a film, your gestures will be seen in close-up, so they cannot be exaggerated as they would be in a theater.“
— Maria Callas
On making studio recordings
„Some say I have a beautiful voice, some say I have not. It is a matter of opinion. All I can say, those who don't like it shouldn't come to hear me.“
— Maria Callas
Television interview with Norman Ross, Chicago (17 November 1957)
„Bel canto does not mean beautiful singing alone. It is, rather, the technique demanded by the composers of this style — Donizetti, Rossini, and Bellini. It is the same attitudes and demands of Mozart and Beethoven, for example, the same approach and the same technical difficulties faced by instrumentalists. You see, a musician is a musician. A singer is no different from an instrumentalist except that we have words. You don't excuse things in a singer you would not dream of excusing in a violinist or pianist. There is no excuse for not having a trill, for not doing the acciaccatura, for not having good scales. Look at your scores! There are technical things written there to be performed, and they must be performed whether you like it or not. How will you get out of a trill? How will you get out of scales when they are written there, staring you in the face? It is not enough to have a beautiful voice. What does that mean? When you interpret a role, you have to have a thousand colors to portray happiness, joy, sorrow, fear. How can you do this with only a beautiful voice? Even if you sing harshly sometimes, as I have frequently done, it is a necessity of expression. You have to do it, even if people will not understand. But in the long run they will, because you must persuade them of what you're doing.“
„[Serafin was] an extraordinary coach, sharp as a vecchio lupo [old wolfe]. He opened a world to me, showed me there was a reason for everything, that even fiorature and trills... have a reason in the composer's mind, that they are the expression of the stato d'animo [state of mind] of the character — that is, the way he feels at the moment, the passing emotions that take hold of him. He would coach us for every little detail, every movement, every word, every breath. One of the things he told me — and this is the basis of bel canto — is never to attack a note from underneath or from above, but always to prepare it in the face. He taught me that pauses are often more important than the music. He explained that there was a rhythm — these are the things you get only from that man! — a measure for the human ear, and that if a note was too long, it was no good after a while. A fermata always must be measured, and if there are two fermate close to one another in the score, you ignore one of them. He taught me the proportions of recitative — how it is elastic, the proportions altering so slightly that only you can understand it.... But in performance he left you on your own. "When I am in the pit, I am there to serve you, because I have to save my performance." he would say. We would look down and feel we had a friend there. He was helping you all the way. He would mouth all the words. If you were not well, he would speed up the tempo, and if you were in top form, he would slow it down to let you breathe, to give you room. He was breathing with you, living the music with you, loving it with you. It was elastic, growing, living.“
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