Николай Кузанский цитаты

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Николай Кузанский

Дата рождения: 1401
Дата смерти: 11. Август 1464

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Никола́й Куза́нский, Николай Кузанец, Кузанус, настоящее имя Николай Кребс — кардинал Римской католической церкви, крупнейший немецкий мыслитель XV века, философ, теолог, учёный-энциклопедист, математик, церковно-политический деятель. Принадлежит к первым немецким гуманистам в эпоху перехода от позднего Средневековья к раннему Новому времени.

Николай Кузанский сыграл большую роль в церковной политике, в особенности, в дебатах относительно церковной реформы. На Базельском соборе он первоначально поддерживал позицию концилиаристов, требовавших ограничения полномочий Папы. Однако впоследствии он перешёл на папскую сторону, которая в итоге и одержала верх. Обладая дипломатическими способностями, он умело продвигал интересы Папы и сделал блестящую карьеру кардинала, папского легата, князь-епископа Бриксенского и генерального викария Папской области. В Бриксене он столкнулся с сильным противодействием местной аристократии и властей, которому не смог противостоять.

Как философ Николай Кузанский стоял на позициях неоплатонизма, идеи которого он черпал как из античных, так из средневековых источников. Основой его философии являлась концепция соединения противоположностей в Едином, где разрешаются все видимые противоречия между несовместимыми. Метафизически и теологически он считал, что Бог есть Единое. В сфере теории государства и политики он также исповедовал идею единения. Самой важной целью он считал максимально широкое воплощение мира и согласия, невзирая на объективные различия во мнениях. В своей философии он развил необычное для своего времени представление о религиозной терпимости . Активно дискутируя об исламе, он признал за этой религией некоторую правдивость и право на существование.

Цитаты Николай Кузанский

„You know, Lord, that a great multitude cannot exist without much diversity“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: You know, Lord, that a great multitude cannot exist without much diversity and that almost all are compelled to lead a laborious life full of troubles and afflictions, and in servile subjugation must be subject to the kings who rule. Hence it has occurred, that only a few men have enough leisure time to employ the freedom of their will and to gain knowledge of themselves. They are distracted by many corporeal cares and duties. Thus they cannot seek You, who are the concealed God.

„For this reason You have given Your people diverse kings and seers, who are called prophets, of whom the majority instituted cults and laws corresponding to the purpose of their legation in Your name, and thus instructed the uncultivated people“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: For this reason You have given Your people diverse kings and seers, who are called prophets, of whom the majority instituted cults and laws corresponding to the purpose of their legation in Your name, and thus instructed the uncultivated people. They subsequently accepted these laws, as if You, the King of Kings, had spoken with them face to face, and believed they heard not those men, but rather You in them.

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„Therefore since all men are free by nature, every government“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: Therefore since all men are free by nature, every government that restrains its subjects from evils and uses the fear of punishment to orient their freedom towards the good, whether it consists of written laws or of a living law in the person of the prince, is constituted only by the agreement and consent of the subjects. For if by nature men are equally powerful and equally free, then the true and well-ordered authority of one who is a fellow and equal in power can only be established by the choice and consent of others, just as laws are established by consent

„Now law ought to be made by all those who are to be bound by it, or by a majority in an election, because it is for the good of the community, and what affects all ought to be decided by all, and a common decision can only be reached by the consent of all, or of a majority“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: Now law ought to be made by all those who are to be bound by it, or by a majority in an election, because it is for the good of the community, and what affects all ought to be decided by all, and a common decision can only be reached by the consent of all, or of a majority. There can be no excuse for disobeying the laws when each has established the law for himself.

„You know how the divine Simplicity enfolds all things“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: You know how the divine Simplicity enfolds all things. Mind is the image of this enfolding Simplicity. If, then, you called this divine Simplicity infinite Mind, it will be the exemplar of our mind. If you called the divine mind the totality of the truth of things, you will call our mind the totality of the assimilation of things, so that it may be a totality of ideas. In the divine Mind conception is the production of things; in our mind conception is the knowledge of things. If the divine Mind is absolute Being, then its conception is the creation of beings; and conception in the human mind is the assimilation of beings. ibid.

„In God, absolute unity is absolute multiplicity, absolute identity is absolute diversity“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: In God, absolute unity is absolute multiplicity, absolute identity is absolute diversity; absolute actuality is absolute potentiality

„The universe has no circumference“

— Nicholas of Cusa
Context: The universe has no circumference, for if it had a center and a circumference there would be some and some thing beyond the world, suppositions which are wholly lacking in truth. Since, therefore, it is impossible that the universe should be enclosed within a corporeal center and corporeal boundary, it is not within our power to understand the universe, whose center and circumference are God. And though the universe cannot be infinite, nevertheless it cannot be conceived as finite since there are no limits within which it could be confined. ibid.

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