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Субкоманданте Маркос

Дата рождения: 19. Июнь 1957

Субкоманда́нте Инсурхе́нте Ма́ркос — левый радикальный писатель и философ, главный идеолог и пропагандист Сапатистской армии национального освобождения, поднявшей индейское восстание в 1994 году в мексиканском штате Чьяпас, автор более 200 эссе и 21 книги. Легенда и общепризнанный символ антиглобализма.

Журналисты описывают Маркоса как нового, постмодернистского Че Гевару.


„Не важно, что под маской. Главное — что она символизирует.“

„We are sorry for the inconvenience, but this is a revolution.“


„Yes, Marcos is gay. Marcos is gay in San Francisco, black in South Africa, an Asian in Europe, a Chicano in San Ysidro, an anarchist in Spain, a Palestinian in Israel, a Mayan Indian in the streets of San Cristobal, a Jew in Germany, a Gypsy in Poland, a Mohawk in Quebec, a pacifist in Bosnia, a single woman on the Metro at 10pm, a peasant without land, a gang member in the slums, an unemployed worker, an unhappy student and, of course, a Zapatista in the mountains.
Marcos is all the exploited, marginalised, oppressed minorities resisting and saying `Enough'. He is every minority who is now beginning to speak and every majority that must shut up and listen. He is every untolerated group searching for a way to speak. Everything that makes power and the good consciences of those in power uncomfortable -- this is Marcos.“

„In our dreams we have seen another world, an honest world, a world decidedly more fair than the one in which we now live. We saw that in this world there was no need for armies; peace, justice and liberty were so common that no one talked about them as far-off concepts, but as things such as bread, birds, air, water, like book and voice.“

„In the cabaret of globalization, the state shows itself as a table dancer that strips off everything until it is left with only the minimum indispensable garments: the repressive force.“

„I shit on all the revolutionary vanguards of this planet“

„As to whether Marcos is gay: Marcos is gay in San Francisco, black in South Africa, an Asian in Europe, a Chicano in San Ysidro, an anarchist in Spain, a Palestinian in Israel, a Mayan Indian in the streets of San Cristobal,… a Jew in Germany, a Gypsy in Poland, a Mohawk in Quebec, a pacifist in Bosnia, a single woman on the Metro at 10pm, a peasant without land, a gang member in the slums, an unemployed worker, an unhappy student and, of course, a Zapatista in the mountains.“

„Abajo y a la Izquierda está el Corazón!“ Ezln Communiques: Navigating the Seas, Dec. 22, 1997-Jan. 29, 1998


„There once was a brown horse that was brown like a bean, and he lived in the home of a very poor farmer. And the poor farmer had a very poor wife, and they had a very thin chicken and a lame little pig. And so, one day the very poor farmer s wife said: We have nothing more to eat because we are very poor, so we must eat the very thin chicken. So they killed the very thin chicken and made a thin soup and ate it. And so, for a while, they were fine; but the hunger returned and the very poor farmer told his very poor wife: We have nothing more to eat because we are so poor, so we must eat the lame little pig. And so the lame little pig s turn came and they killed it and they made a lame soup and ate it. And then it was the bean-brown horse s turn. But the bean-brown horse did not wait for the story to end; it just ran away and went to another story.

Is that the end of the story? I asked Durito, unable to hide my bewilderment. Of course not. Didn't you hear me say that the bean-brown horse fled to another story? he said as he prepared to leave. And so? I ask exasperated. And so nothing you have to look for the bean-brown horse in another story! he said, adjusting his hat. But, Durito! I said, protesting uselessly. Not one more word! You tell the story like it is“
Our Word is Our Weapon: Selected Writings

„We were born between blood and gunpowder; and between blood and gunpowder we were raised. Every so often the powerful from other lands came to rob us of tomorrow. For this reason it was written in a war song that unites us: "If a foreigner with his step ever dares to profane your land, think, Oh beloved motherland, that heaven gave you a soldier in each son." For this reason we fought. With flags and different languages the foreigner came to conquer us. He came and he went.“

„Why do we need to be pardoned? What are we to be pardoned for? For not dying of hunger? For not accepting humbly the historic burden of disdain and abandonment? For having risen up in arms after we found all other paths closed? For not heeding the Chiapas penal code, one of the most absurd and repressive in history? For showing the rest of the country and the whole world that human dignity still exists even among the world’s poorest peoples? For having made careful preparations before we began our uprising? For bringing guns to battle instead of bows and arrows? For being Mexicans? For being mainly indigenous? For calling on the Mexican people to fight by whatever means possible for what belongs to them? For fighting for liberty, democracy and justice? For not following the example of previous guerrilla armies? For refusing to surrender? For refusing to sell ourselves out? Who should we ask for pardon, and who can grant it? Those who for many years glutted themselves at a table of plenty while we sat with death so often, we finally stopped fearing it? Those who filled our pockets and our souls with empty promises and words? Or should we ask pardon from the dead, our dead, who died “natural” deaths of “natural causes” like measles, whooping cough, break-bone fever, cholera, typhus, mononucleosis, tetanus, pneumonia, malaria and other lovely gastrointestinal and pulmonary diseases? Our dead, so very dead, so democratically dead from sorrow because no one did anything, because the dead, our dead, went just like that, with no one keeping count with no one saying, “Enough!” which would at least have granted some meaning to their deaths, a meaning no one ever sought for them, the dead of all times, who are now dying once again, but now in order to live? Should we ask pardon from those who deny us the right and capacity to govern ourselves? From those who don’t respect our customs and our culture and who ask us for identification papers and obedience to a law whose existence and moral basis we don’t accept? From those who oppress us, torture us, assassinate us, disappear us from the grave “crime” of wanting a piece of land, not too big and not too small, but just a simple piece of land on which we can grow something to fill our stomachs? Who should ask for pardon, and who can grant it?“

„But I'll tell you more about that later... or maybe I won't, because some wounds just don't heal even if you talk them out. On the contrary, the more you dress them up in words, the more they bleed.“


„The prophecy is here: When the storm calms, when rain and fire again leave the country in peace, the world will no longer be the world, but something better.“

„Then the lion stares at it. It stares at its prey. Like this.' (Old Antonio frowns and fastens his black eyes on me.) 'The poor little animal that is going to die just looks. It looks at the lion, who is staring at him. The little animal no longer sees itself, it sees what the lion sees, it looks at the little animal image in the lion's stare, it sees that the lion sees it as small and weak. The little animal never thought before about whether it was small and weak. It was just an animal, neither big nor small, neither strong nor weak. But now it looks at what the lion is seeing, it looks at fear. And by looking at what the lion is seeing, the little animal convinces itself that it is small and weak. And, by looking at the fear that the lion sees, it feels afraid. And now the little animal does not look at anything. Its bones go numb, just like when water gets hold of us at night in the cold. And then the little animal just surrenders, it lets itself go and the lion gets it. That is how the lion kills. It kills by staring.“

„Los soldados mexicanos se empiezan a pregun-tar qué hacen persiguiendo mexicanos, dónde quedaron la Patria y su historia, dónde el honor y la verguenza...“ Don Durito de la Lacandona

„Debo empezar por unas disculpas ("mal comienzo", decía mi abuela).

¿De qué tenemos que pedir perdón? ¿De qué nos van a perdonar? ¿De no morirnos de hambre? ¿De no callarnos en nuestra miseria? ¿De no haber aceptado humildemente la gigantesca carga histórica de desprecio y abandono? ¿De habernos levantado en armas cuando encontramos todos los otros caminos cerrados? ¿De no habernos atenido al Código Penal de Chiapas, el más absurdo y represivo del que se tenga memoria? ¿De haber demostrado al resto del país y al mundo entero que la dignidad humana vive aún y está en sus habitantes más empobrecidos? ¿De habernos preparado bien y a conciencia antes de iniciar? ¿De haber llevado fusiles al combate, en lugar de arcos y flechas? ¿De haber aprendido a pelear antes de hacerlo? ¿De ser mexicanos todos? ¿De ser mayoritariamente indígenas? ¿De llamar al pueblo mexicano todo a luchar de todas las formas posibles, por lo que les pertenece? ¿De luchar por libertad, democracia y justicia? ¿De no seguir los patrones de las guerrillas anteriores? ¿De no rendirnos? ¿De no vendernos? ¿De no traicionarnos? ¿Quién tiene que pedir perdón y quién puede otorgarlo? ¿Los que, durante años y años, se sentaron ante una mesa llena y se saciaron mientras con nosotros se sentaba la muerte, tan cotidiana, tan nuestra que acabamos por dejar de tenerle miedo? ¿Los que nos llenaron las bolsas y el alma de declaraciones y promesas? ¿Los muertos, nuestros muertos, tan mortalmente muertos de muerte "natural", es decir, de sarampión, tosferina, dengue, cólera, tifoidea, mononucleosis, tétanos, pulmonía, paludismo y otras lindezas gastrointestinales y pulmonares? ¿Nuestros muertos, tan mayoritariamente muertos, tan democráticamente muertos de pena porque nadie hacía nada, porque todos los muertos, nuestros muertos, se iban así nomás, sin que nadie llevara la cuenta, sin que nadie dijera, por fin, el "¡YA BASTA!", que devolviera a esas muertes su sentido, sin que nadie pidiera a los muertos de siempre, nuestros muertos, que regresaran a morir otra vez pero ahora para vivir? ¿Los que nos negaron el derecho y don de nuestras gentes de gobernar y gobernarnos? ¿Los que negaron el respeto a nuestra costumbre, a nuestro color, a nuestra lengua? ¿Los que nos tratan como extranjeros en nuestra propia tierra y nos piden papeles y obediencia a una ley cuya existencia y justeza ignoramos? ¿Los que nos torturaron, apresaron, asesinaron y desaparecieron por el grave "delito" de querer un pedazo de tierra, no un pedazo grande, no un pedazo chico, sólo un pedazo al que se le pudiera sacar algo para completar el estómago?

¿Quién tiene que pedir perdón y quién puede otorgarlo?

¿El presidente de la república? ¿Los secretarios de estado? ¿Los senadores? ¿Los diputados? ¿Los gobernadores? ¿Los presidentes municipales? ¿Los policías? ¿El ejército federal? ¿Los grandes señores de la banca, la industria, el comercio y la tierra? ¿Los partidos políticos? ¿Los intelectuales? ¿Galio y Nexos? ¿Los medios de comunicación? ¿Los estudiantes? ¿Los maestros? ¿Los colonos? ¿Los obreros? ¿Los campesinos? ¿Los indígenas? ¿Los muertos de muerte inútil?

¿Quién tiene que pedir perdón y quién puede otorgarlo?“

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