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Антонио Грамши

Дата рождения: 22. Январь 1891
Дата смерти: 27. Апрель 1937

Анто́нио Гра́мши — итальянский философ, журналист и политический деятель; основатель и руководитель Итальянской коммунистической партии и теоретик марксизма. Считается одним из основоположников неомарксизма; к его идеям апеллировали как новые левые, так и сторонники еврокоммунизма. Своим предшественником и в критике либерализма и фашизма, и в своей позитивной программе его считают также представители современного идеологического коммунитаризма и многие континентальные новые правые.

Цитаты Антонио Грамши

„Я — пессимист по своим наблюдениям, но оптимист по своим действиям.“

„Человек — это процесс его поступков.“

„I'm a pessimist because of intelligence, but an optimist because of will.“ Gramsci's Prison Letters

„The point of modernity is to live a life without illusions while not becoming disillusioned“

„I hate the indifferent. I believe that living means taking sides. Those who really live cannot help being a citizen and a partisan. Indifference and apathy are parasitism, perversion, not life. That is why I hate the indifferent.

The indifference is the deadweight of history. The indifference operates with great power on history. The indifference operates passively, but it operates. It is fate, that which cannot be counted on. It twists programs and ruins the best-conceived plans. It is the raw material that ruins intelligence. That what happens, the evil that weighs upon all, happens because the human mass abdicates to their will; allows laws to be promulgated that only the revolt could nullify, and leaves men that only a mutiny will be able to overthrow to achieve the power. The mass ignores because it is careless and then it seems like it is the product of fate that runs over everything and everyone: the one who consents as well as the one who dissents; the one who knew as well as the one who didn’t know; the active as well as the indifferent. Some whimper piously, others curse obscenely, but nobody, or very few ask themselves: If I had tried to impose my will, would this have happened?

I also hate the indifferent because of that: because their whimpering of eternally innocent ones annoys me. I make each one liable: how they have tackled with the task that life has given and gives them every day, what have they done, and especially, what they have not done. And I feel I have the right to be inexorable and not squander my compassion, of not sharing my tears with them.

I am a partisan, I am alive, I feel the pulse of the activity of the future city that those on my side are building is alive in their conscience. And in it, the social chain does not rest on a few; nothing of what happens in it is a matter of luck, nor the product of fate, but the intelligent work of the citizens. Nobody in it is looking from the window of the sacrifice and the drain of a few. Alive, I am a partisan. That is why I hate the ones that don’t take sides, I hate the indifferent.“

„The crisis consists precisely in the fact that the old is dying and the new cannot be born“ Selections from the Prison Notebooks

„Pessimism of the spirit; optimism of the will.“

„Man is above all else mind, consciousness -- that is, he is a product of history, not of nature.“

„All men are intellectuals, but not all men have in society the function of intellectuals“ Selections from the Prison Notebooks

„If you beat your head against the wall, it is your head that breaks and not the wall.“

„The crisis consists precisely in the fact that the old is dying and the new cannot be born; in this interregnum a great variety of morbid symptoms appear.“ Prison Notebooks

„Pessimism of the intellect, optimism of the will.“

„How many times have I wondered if it is really possible to forge links with a mass of people when one has never had strong feelings for anyone, not even one's own parents: if it is possible to have a collectivity when one has not been deeply loved oneself by individual human creatures. Hasn't this had some effect on my life as a militant--has it not tended to make me sterile and reduce my quality as a revolutionary by making everything a matter of pure intellect, of pure mathematical calculation?“

„The challenge of modernity is to live without illusions and without becoming disillusioned. I’m a pessimist because of intelligence, but an optimist because of will.“

„Common sense is a chaotic aggregate of disparate conceptions, and one can find there anything that one like.“ Selections from the Prison Notebooks

„Ideas and opinions are not spontaneously "born" in each individual brain: they have had a centre of formation, or irradiation, of dissemination, of persuasion-a group of men, or a single individual even, which has developed them and presented them in the political form of current reality.“ Selections from the Prison Notebooks

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