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Эрик Кандел

Дата рождения: 7. Ноябрь 1929

Э́рик Ри́чард Ка́ндел — американский психиатр, нейробиолог и профессор биохимии . Награждён в 2000 году Нобелевской премией по физиологии или медицине за открытия, касающиеся передачи сигналов в нервной системе, совместно с Полом Грингардом и Арвидом Карлссоном.В англоязычной транскрипции фамилия Kandel читается как Кендэл . Учитывая происхождение Эрика Кендэла из австрийской еврейской семьи, в русскоязычной литературе зачастую его фамилия переводится как Кандель.

„What strategy does the brain use to read itself out?“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: What strategy does the brain use to read itself out? That question, which is central to the unitary nature of conscious experience, remains one of the many unresolved mysteries of the new science of mind.

„Libet could predict what a person would do before the person was actually aware of having decided to do it.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: By merely observing the electrical activity in the brain, Libet could predict what a person would do before the person was actually aware of having decided to do it. This finding caused philosophers of mind to ask: If the choice is determined in the brain before we decide to act, where is free will?... choice in action, as in perception, may reflect the importance of unconscious inference. Libet proposes that... just before the action is initiated, consciousness is recruited to approve or veto the action.

„Every time I embarked on a new course, there were well-meaning people… who advised against it.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: I have at times felt alone, uncertain, without a well-trodden path to follow. Every time I embarked on a new course, there were well-meaning people... who advised against it. I had to learn early on to be comfortable with insecurity and to trust my own judgement on key issues.

„London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important—those that store food at a large number of sites, for example—have larger hippocampuses than other birds.... London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus than others the same age.... the size of their hippocampus continues to increase with time on the job.

„I owe my existence in the United States to the generosity of the Viennese Kultusgemeinde.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: The Viennese Kultusgemeinde... was going bankrupt... European governments typically compensate Jewish agencies... but the Austrian government's compensation was not adequate.... I owe my existence in the United States to the generosity of the Viennese Kultusgemeinde.

„As astronomy and physics inspired the Enlightenment, so biology inspired Modernism.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Контексте: As astronomy and physics inspired the Enlightenment, so biology inspired Modernism.... This new view led to a reexamination in art of the biological nature of human existence, as evident in Édouard Manet's Déjeuner sur l’Herbe... Manet's painting... reveals a theme... the complex relationship between the sexes and between fantasy and reality.... also startlingly modern because of its style. Several decades before Cézanne began to collapse three dimension into two, Manet here had already flattened the viewer's sense of perspective...

„Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: Birds in which spatial memory is particularly important—those that store food at a large number of sites, for example—have larger hippocampuses than other birds.... London taxi drivers have a larger hippocampus than others the same age.... the size of their hippocampus continues to increase with time on the job.

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„Unlike vision, touch, or smell, which are prewired and based on Kantian a priori knowledge, the spatial map presents us with a new type of representation, one based on a combination of a priori knowledge and learning.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: Unlike vision, touch, or smell, which are prewired and based on Kantian a priori knowledge, the spatial map presents us with a new type of representation, one based on a combination of a priori knowledge and learning. The general capability for forming spatial maps is built into the mind, but the particular map is not. Unlike neurons in a sensory system, place cells are not switched on by sensory stimulation. Their collective activity represents the location where the animal thinks it is.

„The third great revolution, the Freudian revolution of Vienna 1900, revealed that we do not consciously control our own actions but are instead driven by unconscious motives. This… later led to the idea that human creativity… stems from conscious access to underlying, unconscious forces.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Контексте: The Copernican revolution... revealed that the earth is not the center of the universe... The second, the Darwinian revolution... revealed that we are not created divinely or uniquely but instead evolved from simpler animals by a process of natural selection. The third great revolution, the Freudian revolution of Vienna 1900, revealed that we do not consciously control our own actions but are instead driven by unconscious motives. This... later led to the idea that human creativity... stems from conscious access to underlying, unconscious forces.

„CREB's opposing regulatory actions provide a threshold for memory storage, presumably to ensure that only important, life-serving experiences are learned. Repeated shocks to the tail are a significant learning experience for an Aplysia, just as, say, practicing the piano or conjugating French verbs are to us: practice makes perfect, repetition is necessary for long-term memory. In principle, however, a highly emotional state… could bypass the normal restraints on long-term memory.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: CREB's opposing regulatory actions provide a threshold for memory storage, presumably to ensure that only important, life-serving experiences are learned. Repeated shocks to the tail are a significant learning experience for an Aplysia, just as, say, practicing the piano or conjugating French verbs are to us: practice makes perfect, repetition is necessary for long-term memory. In principle, however, a highly emotional state... could bypass the normal restraints on long-term memory. In such a situation, enough MAP kinase molecules would be sent into the nucleus rapidly enough to inactivate all of the CREB-2 molecules, thereby making it easy for protein kinase A to activate CREB-1 and put the experience directly into long-term memory.

„Transferring the receptor from a social worm to a solitary worm makes the solitary worm social.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: Cori Bargmann... has studied two variants of C. elegans... The only difference between the two is one amino acid in an otherwise shared receptor protein. Transferring the receptor from a social worm to a solitary worm makes the solitary worm social.

„The realization that our mental functioning is largely irrational was arrived at by several thinkers at the same time“

—  Eric R. Kandel

The Age of Insight (2012)
Контексте: The realization that our mental functioning is largely irrational was arrived at by several thinkers at the same time, including Friedrich Nietzsche... Freud, who was much influenced by both Darwin and Nietzsche... was its most profound and articulate exponent.... Schnitzler, Klimt, Kokoschka, and Schiele also discovered and explored new aspects of our unconscious mental life. They understood women better than Freud... and they saw more clearly than Freud the importance of an infant's bonding to its mother. They even realized the significance of the aggressive instinct earlier than Freud did.... Plato discussed unconscious knowledge... pointing out that much of our knowledge is inherent in the psyche in latent form.... Hermann von Helmholtz... advanced the idea that the unconscious plays a critical role in human visual perception.

„The life of a biological scientist in the United States is a life of discussion and debate—it is the Talmudic tradition writ large.“

—  Eric R. Kandel

In Search of Memory (2006)
Контексте: The life of a biological scientist in the United States is a life of discussion and debate—it is the Talmudic tradition writ large.... The egalitarian structure of American science encourages this camaraderie.... this would not—could not—have taken place in the Austria, the Germany, the France, or perhaps even the England of 1955.

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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