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Макс Борн

Дата рождения: 11. Декабрь 1882
Дата смерти: 5. Январь 1970

Макс Борн — немецкий и британский физик-теоретик и математик, один из создателей квантовой механики. Лауреат Нобелевской премии по физике . Член ряда научных обществ мира, в том числе иностранный член Академии наук СССР .

Борн является автором фундаментальных результатов в квантовой теории: он стал одним из основоположников матричной механики, предложил вероятностную интерпретацию волновой функции Шрёдингера, внёс существенный вклад в квантовую теорию рассеяния и так далее. Занимался проблемами динамики кристаллических решёток, термодинамикой и кинетической теорией твёрдых тел, жидкостей и газов, теорией относительности, теорией упругости. Применял идеи квантовой механики к вопросам из различных разделов науки , предпринял попытку построения нелинейной электродинамики . В Гёттингене и Эдинбурге Борн создал крупные научные школы, выступал с публикациями по философским и социальным проблемам науки. После Второй мировой войны стал одним из основателей и активных участников движения учёных за мир.

„Наука оставила вопрос о Боге совершенно открытым. Наука не имеет права судить об этом. Многие ученые верят в Бога. Те, кто говорит, что изучение наук делает человека атеистом, вероятно, какие-то смешные люди.“

„The belief that there is only one truth and that oneself is in possession of it seems to me the root of all the evil that is in the world“

„Physics as we know it will be over in six months.“

„I am now convinced that theoretical physics is actual philosophy.“

„I have tried to read philosophers of all ages and have found many illuminating ideas but no steady progress toward deeper knowledge and understanding. Science, however, gives me the feeling of steady progress: I am convinced that theoretical physics is actual philosophy. It has revolutionized fundamental concepts, e. g., about space and time (relativity), about causality (quantum theory), and about substance and matter (atomistics), and it has taught us new methods of thinking (complementarity) which are applicable far beyond physics.“

„I believe that ideas such as absolute certitude, absolute exactness, final truth, etc. are figments of the imagination which should not be admissible in any field of science... This loosening of thinking seems to me to be the greatest blessing which modern science has given to us. For the belief in a single truth and in being the possessor thereof is the root cause of all evil in the world.“

„There are two objectionable types of believers: those who believe the incredible, and those who believe that 'belief' must be discarded and replaced by 'the scientific method'.“ Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance

„We have sought for firm ground and found none.
The deeper we penetrate, the more restless becomes the universe; all is rushing about and vibrating in a wild dance.“

„But in practical affairs, particularly in politics, men are needed who combine human experience and interest in human relations with a knowledge of science and technology.“

„If alpha [the fine-structure constant] were bigger than it really is, we should not be able to distinguish matter from ether [the vacuum, nothingness], and our task to disentangle the natural laws would be hopelessly difficult. The fact however that alpha has just its value 1/137 is certainly no chance but itself a law of nature. It is clear that the explanation of this number must be the central problem of natural philosophy.“

„For all the communities available to us, there is not one I would want to devote myself to, except for the society of the true searchers, which has very few living members at any time.“ The Born-Einstein Letters 1916-55

„Einstein would be one of the greatest theoretical physicists of all time even if he had not written a single line on relativity.“

„We, the atom and I, have been on friendly terms, until recently. I saw in it the key to the deepest secrets of Nature, and it revealed to me the greatness of creation and the Creator.“ My Life and My Views

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