Роджер Бэкон цитаты

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Роджер Бэкон

Дата рождения: 1220
Дата смерти: 1292

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Ро́джер Бэкон , известен также как Удивительный доктор — английский философ и естествоиспытатель, монах-францисканец ; профессор богословия в Оксфорде. Занимался математикой, химией и физикой; в оптике разработал новые теории об увеличительных стёклах, преломлении лучей, перспективе, величине видимых предметов и другие.

В философии Бэкон не создал нового учения, но дал критику методов и теорий своего времени, утверждавших, что философия уже достигла совершенства; первым выступил против схоластики и резко отзывался о тогдашних великих авторитетах ; это обстоятельство в связи с его нападками на распущенность духовенства навлекло на него преследование духовной власти и 12-летнее тюремное заточение. Его сочинение «Opus majus» проводит мысль о бесполезности отвлечённой диалектики, о необходимости изучать природу посредством наблюдения и подчинить её законам математического вычисления.

Верил в астрологию, в предзнаменования, в философский камень и в квадратуру круга; автор небольших произведений, касающихся алхимии. Упоминание «Секрета» в сочинении «Opus Tertium» служит доказательством его принадлежности к ограниченному кругу эзотериков .

Цитаты Роджер Бэкон

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„All other sciences are called speculative: they are not concerned with the deeds of the present or future life affecting man's salvation or damnation. All procedures of art and of nature are“

— Roger Bacon
Context: All these foregoing sciences are, properly speaking, speculative. There is indeed in every science a practical side, as Avicenna teaches in the first book of his Art of Medicine. Nevertheless, of Moral Philosophy alone can it be said that it is in the special and autonomatic sense practical, dealing as it does with human conduct with reference to virtue and vice, beatitude and misery. All other sciences are called speculative: they are not concerned with the deeds of the present or future life affecting man's salvation or damnation. All procedures of art and of nature are directed to these moral actions, and exist on account of them. They are of no account except in that they help forward right action. Thus practical and operative sciences, as experimental alchemy and the rest, are regarded as speculative in reference to the operations with which moral or political science is concerned. This science is the mistress of every department of philosophy. It employs and controls them for the advantage of states and kingdoms. It directs the choice of men who are to study in sciences and arts for the common good. It orders all members of the state or kingdom so that none shall remain without his proper work. Ch. 14 as quoted in J. H. Bridges, The 'Opus Majus' of Roger Bacon (1900) [http://books.google.com/books?id=6F0XAQAAMAAJ Vol.1] Preface pp.x-xi

„I have labored much in sciences and languages“

— Roger Bacon
Context: I have labored much in sciences and languages, and I have up to now devoted forty years [to them] after I first learned the Alphabetum; and I was always studious. Apart from two of these forty years I was always [engaged] in study [or at a place of study], and I had many expenses just as others commonly have. Nevertheless, provided I had first composed a compendium, I am certain that within quarter or half a year I could directly teach a solicitous and confident person whatever I know of these sciences and languages. And it is known that no one worked in so many sciences and languages as I did, nor so much as I did. Indeed, when I was living in the other state of life [as a Magister], people marveled that I survived the abundance of my work. And still, I was just as involved in studies afterwards, as I had been before. But I did not work all that much, since in the pursuit of Wisdom this was not required. OQHI, [http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/text.php?tabelle=Rogerus_Baco_cps4&rumpfid=Rogerus_Baco_cps4,%20Opus%20tertium,%20%2020&corpus=4&lang=0&current_title=Opus%20tertium&links=&inframe=1 65] as cited in: Jeremiah Hackett (2009) "[http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/roger-bacon Roger Bacon]" in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edward N. Zalta (ed.)

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„Oh how delightful is the taste of wisdom to those who are“

— Roger Bacon
Context: Oh how delightful is the taste of wisdom to those who are thus steeped in it from its very fount and origin. They who have not tried this cannot feel the delight of wisdom, just as a sick man cannot estimate the flavour of food. But because they are affected with this sort of mental sickness, and their intellect in this matter is as it were deaf from their very birth, so as not to appreciate the delight of harmony, on this account they grieve not at this so great loss of wisdom, though indeed without doubt it is an infinite loss. Compendium Studii Theologiae (1292) c. viii. & Brewer's [http://books.google.com/books?id=xugSScQC_bEC Bacon] (1859) p. 466 as cited by George Gresley Perry, The Life and Times of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln (1871)

„Neglect of mathematics works injury to all knowledge, since he who is ignorant of it cannot know the other sciences or the things of this world. And what is worse, men who are thus Ignorant are unable to perceive their own ignorance and so do not seek a remedy.“

— Roger Bacon
Context: Mathematics is the gate and key of the sciences.... Neglect of mathematics works injury to all knowledge, since he who is ignorant of it cannot know the other sciences or the things of this world. And what is worse, men who are thus Ignorant are unable to perceive their own ignorance and so do not seek a remedy. cited in: Morris Kline (1969) Mathematics and the physical world. p. 1

„The strongest argument proves nothing so long as the conclusions are not verified by experience.“

— Roger Bacon
Context: The strongest argument proves nothing so long as the conclusions are not verified by experience. Experimental science is the queen of sciences, and the goal of all speculation. OQHI, [http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/text.php?tabelle=Rogerus_Baco_cps4&rumpfid=Rogerus_Baco_cps4,%20Opus%20tertium,%20%2013&level=3&corpus=4&lang=0&current_title=Opus%20tertium&links=&inframe=1&hide_apparatus= 43] as cited in: James J. Walsch (1911) "Science at the Medieval Universities" in: Popular Science, May 1911, [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Popular_Science_Monthly_Volume_78.djvu/459 p. 449]

„For the things of this world cannot be made known without a knowledge of mathematics.“

— Roger Bacon
Context: For the things of this world cannot be made known without a knowledge of mathematics. For this is an assured fact in regard to celestial things, since two important sciences of mathematics treat of them, namely theoretical astrology and practical astrology. The first … gives us definite information as to the number of the heavens and of the stars, whose size can be comprehended by means of instruments, and the shapes of all and their magnitudes and distances from the earth, and the thicknesses and number, and greatness and smallness, … It likewise treats of the size and shape of the habitable earth … All this information is secured by means of instruments suitable for these purposes, and by tables and by canons.. For everything works through innate forces shown by lines, angles and figures. Cited in: Opus majus: A translation by Robert Belle Burke. Vol 1 (1962). p. 128

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„But I did not work all that much, since in the pursuit of Wisdom this was not required.“

— Roger Bacon
Context: I have labored much in sciences and languages, and I have up to now devoted forty years [to them] after I first learned the Alphabetum; and I was always studious. Apart from two of these forty years I was always [engaged] in study [or at a place of study], and I had many expenses just as others commonly have. Nevertheless, provided I had first composed a compendium, I am certain that within quarter or half a year I could directly teach a solicitous and confident person whatever I know of these sciences and languages. And it is known that no one worked in so many sciences and languages as I did, nor so much as I did. Indeed, when I was living in the other state of life [as a Magister], people marveled that I survived the abundance of my work. And still, I was just as involved in studies afterwards, as I had been before. But I did not work all that much, since in the pursuit of Wisdom this was not required. OQHI, [http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/text.php?tabelle=Rogerus_Baco_cps4&rumpfid=Rogerus_Baco_cps4,%20Opus%20tertium,%20%2020&corpus=4&lang=0&current_title=Opus%20tertium&links=&inframe=1 65] as cited in: Jeremiah Hackett (2009) "[http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/roger-bacon Roger Bacon]" in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edward N. Zalta (ed.)

„I use the example of the rainbow and of the phenomena connected with it, of which sort are the circle around the sun and the stars, likewise the rod lying at the side of the sun or of a star which appears to the eye in a straight line... called the rod by Seneca, and the circle is called the corona, which often has the colors of the rainbow. But neither Aristotle nor Avicenna, in their Natural Histories, has given us knowledge of things of this sort, nor has Seneca, who composed a special book on them. But Experimental Science makes certain of them. [The experimenter] considers rowers and he finds the same colors in the falling drops dripping from the raised oars when the solar rays penetrate drops of this sort. It is the same with waters falling from the wheels of a mill; and when a man sees the drops of dew in summer of a morning lying on the grass in the meadow or the field, he will see the colors. And in the same way when it rains, if he stands in a shady place and if the rays beyond it pass through dripping moisture, then the colors will appear in the shadow nearby; and very frequently of a night colors appear around the wax candle. Moreover, if a man in summer, when he rises from sleep and while his eyes are yet only partly opened, looks suddenly toward an aperture through which a ray of the sun enters, he will see colors. And if, while seated beyond the sun, he extend his hat before his eyes, he will see colors; and in the same way if he closes his eye, the same thing happens under the shade of the eyebrow; and again, the same phenomenon occurs through a glass vessel filled with water, placed in the rays of the sun. Or similarly if any one holding water in his mouth sprinkles it vigorously into the rays and stands to the side of the rays; and if rays in the proper position pass through an oil lamp hanging in the air, so that the light falls on the surface of the oil, colors will be produced. And so in an infinite number of ways, as well natural as artificial, colors of this sort appear, as the careful experimenter is able to discover.“

— Roger Bacon
6th part Experimental Science, Ch.2 Tr. Richard McKeon, Selections from Medieval Philosophers Vol.2 Roger Bacon to William of Ockham

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