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Роджер Бэкон

Дата рождения: 1220
Дата смерти: 1292

Ро́джер Бэкон , известен также как Удивительный доктор — английский философ и естествоиспытатель, монах-францисканец ; профессор богословия в Оксфорде. Занимался математикой, химией и физикой; в оптике разработал новые теории об увеличительных стёклах, преломлении лучей, перспективе, величине видимых предметов и другие.

В философии Бэкон не создал нового учения, но дал критику методов и теорий своего времени, утверждавших, что философия уже достигла совершенства; первым выступил против схоластики и резко отзывался о тогдашних великих авторитетах ; это обстоятельство в связи с его нападками на распущенность духовенства навлекло на него преследование духовной власти и 12-летнее тюремное заточение. Его сочинение «Opus majus» проводит мысль о бесполезности отвлечённой диалектики, о необходимости изучать природу посредством наблюдения и подчинить её законам математического вычисления.

Верил в астрологию, в предзнаменования, в философский камень и в квадратуру круга; автор небольших произведений, касающихся алхимии. Упоминание «Секрета» в сочинении «Opus Tertium» служит доказательством его принадлежности к ограниченному кругу эзотериков .

„Роджер Бэкон показал, как легко, и как тщетно исследовать функции Природы и бездумно обращаться к её чудесным работам, полагаясь на случай или явление, или на непосредственное вмешательство Бога.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

Roger Bacon had shown how easy it is, and how vain, to survey the operations of Nature and idly refer her wondrous works to chance or accident, or to the immediate interposition of God.
Д’Арси Уэнтуорт Томпсон, «О росте и форме» (гл. I), 1917
Источник: Thompson, D'Arcy Wentworth, On Growth and Form https://archive.org/details/ongrowthform00thom, Cambridge : University Press; New York: Macmillan, 1945, p. 8.

„Роджер Бэкон, человек почти универсального гения, который написал практически все отрасли науки. <…> Хотя Бэкон был велик, он был далеко не свободен от ошибок и предрассудков тех, кто жил до него. Даже некоторые из самых диких и абсурдных мнений людей античности получали право на дальнейшее существование из-за уважения его опыта и авторитета.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

Roger Bacon, a man of almost universal genius, and who wrote on almost every branch of science. <…> Great as Bacon was, he was far from being free from the mistakes and prejudices of those who went before him. Even some of the most wild and absurd opinions of the antients have the sanction of his approbation and authority.
Джозеф Пристли, «История и современное состояние открытий, относящихся к зрению, свету и цветам», 1772

„О, как восхитительный вкус мудрости для тех, кто так погружен в сам источник её происхождения.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

перевод на англ.: Oh how delightful is the taste of wisdom to those who are thus steeped in it from its very fount and origin.
«Компендиум теологии» («Compendium Studii Theologiae»), 1292

„Опытная наука — владычица умозрительных наук.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

Источник: № 6198 // Мудрость тысячелетий от А до Я. Великие мысли и афоризмы великих людей / сост. В. Н. Зубков. — М.: АСТ, Астрель, Харвест, 2010.

„Мудрый вопрос является половиной знания.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

Prudens quaestio dimidium scientiae.
максима, в упрощённом виде предвосхищающая проблему индукции

„… если бы я имел власть, я бы сжёг все работы Стагирита, поскольку их изучение было не просто потерей времени, но и умножением невежества.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

перевод на англ.: ... if <I> had the power <I sho>uld burn all the works of the Stagirite, since the study of them was not simply loss of time, but multiplication of ignorance.
Источник: Комментарий Джорджа Генри Льюиса («Аристотель: глава из истории науки», гл. 6, 1864): «Однако, несмотря на эту вспышку, каждая страница <Opus Majus> усеяна цитатами из Аристотеля, которого он везде удостаивает наивысших похвал.» (Yet in spite of this outbreak every page is studded with citations from Aristotle, of whom he everywhere speaks in the highest admiration.)
Источник: ‘Rogeri Bacon Opus Majus nunc primum ed. S. Jebb,’ London 1733; reprinted Venice, 1750, preface, p. v.

„Мои настоятели и братья, подвергая меня наказанию голодом, держали меня под строгой охраной и не позволяли никому прийти ко мне из опасения, что мои писания станут известны кому-либо кроме Папы и их самих.“

—  Роджер Бэкон

«Третье сочинение», около 1267
Источник: Opus tertium // Fr. Rogeri Bacon opera qiiaedam hactcnus inedita / Ed. J. S. Brewer. London, 1859, p. xciv.
Источник: К. П. Виноградов. Rogeri Bacon vita et opera (Жизнь и творчество Роджера Бэкона) // Роджер Бэкон. Избранное / пер. с лат. под ред. Лупандина И. В. — М.: Издательство Францисканцев, 2005. — С. 15.

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„All other sciences are called speculative: they are not concerned with the deeds of the present or future life affecting man's salvation or damnation. All procedures of art and of nature are“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Tertium

Источник: Opus Tertium, c. 1267, Ch. 14 as quoted in J. H. Bridges, The 'Opus Majus' of Roger Bacon (1900) Vol.1 http://books.google.com/books?id=6F0XAQAAMAAJ Preface pp.x-xi
Контексте: All these foregoing sciences are, properly speaking, speculative. There is indeed in every science a practical side, as Avicenna teaches in the first book of his Art of Medicine. Nevertheless, of Moral Philosophy alone can it be said that it is in the special and autonomatic sense practical, dealing as it does with human conduct with reference to virtue and vice, beatitude and misery. All other sciences are called speculative: they are not concerned with the deeds of the present or future life affecting man's salvation or damnation. All procedures of art and of nature are directed to these moral actions, and exist on account of them. They are of no account except in that they help forward right action. Thus practical and operative sciences, as experimental alchemy and the rest, are regarded as speculative in reference to the operations with which moral or political science is concerned. This science is the mistress of every department of philosophy. It employs and controls them for the advantage of states and kingdoms. It directs the choice of men who are to study in sciences and arts for the common good. It orders all members of the state or kingdom so that none shall remain without his proper work.

„Oh how delightful is the taste of wisdom to those who are“

—  Roger Bacon

Compendium Studii Theologiae (1292) c. viii. & Brewer's Bacon http://books.google.com/books?id=xugSScQC_bEC (1859) p. 466 as cited by George Gresley Perry, The Life and Times of Robert Grosseteste, Bishop of Lincoln (1871)
Контексте: Oh how delightful is the taste of wisdom to those who are thus steeped in it from its very fount and origin. They who have not tried this cannot feel the delight of wisdom, just as a sick man cannot estimate the flavour of food. But because they are affected with this sort of mental sickness, and their intellect in this matter is as it were deaf from their very birth, so as not to appreciate the delight of harmony, on this account they grieve not at this so great loss of wisdom, though indeed without doubt it is an infinite loss.

„But I did not work all that much, since in the pursuit of Wisdom this was not required.“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Tertium

OQHI, 65 http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/text.php?tabelle=Rogerus_Baco_cps4&rumpfid=Rogerus_Baco_cps4,%20Opus%20tertium,%20%2020&corpus=4&lang=0&current_title=Opus%20tertium&links=&inframe=1 as cited in: Jeremiah Hackett (2009) """" Roger Bacon http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/roger-bacon"""" in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
Opus Tertium, c. 1267
Контексте: I have labored much in sciences and languages, and I have up to now devoted forty years [to them] after I first learned the Alphabetum; and I was always studious. Apart from two of these forty years I was always [engaged] in study [or at a place of study], and I had many expenses just as others commonly have. Nevertheless, provided I had first composed a compendium, I am certain that within quarter or half a year I could directly teach a solicitous and confident person whatever I know of these sciences and languages. And it is known that no one worked in so many sciences and languages as I did, nor so much as I did. Indeed, when I was living in the other state of life [as a Magister], people marveled that I survived the abundance of my work. And still, I was just as involved in studies afterwards, as I had been before. But I did not work all that much, since in the pursuit of Wisdom this was not required.

„For the things of this world cannot be made known without a knowledge of mathematics.“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Majus

Cited in: Opus majus: A translation by Robert Belle Burke. Vol 1 (1962). p. 128
Opus Majus, c. 1267
Контексте: For the things of this world cannot be made known without a knowledge of mathematics. For this is an assured fact in regard to celestial things, since two important sciences of mathematics treat of them, namely theoretical astrology and practical astrology. The first … gives us definite information as to the number of the heavens and of the stars, whose size can be comprehended by means of instruments, and the shapes of all and their magnitudes and distances from the earth, and the thicknesses and number, and greatness and smallness, … It likewise treats of the size and shape of the habitable earth … All this information is secured by means of instruments suitable for these purposes, and by tables and by canons.. For everything works through innate forces shown by lines, angles and figures.

„I have labored much in sciences and languages“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Tertium

OQHI, 65 http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/text.php?tabelle=Rogerus_Baco_cps4&rumpfid=Rogerus_Baco_cps4,%20Opus%20tertium,%20%2020&corpus=4&lang=0&current_title=Opus%20tertium&links=&inframe=1 as cited in: Jeremiah Hackett (2009) """" Roger Bacon http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2012/entries/roger-bacon"""" in: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
Opus Tertium, c. 1267
Контексте: I have labored much in sciences and languages, and I have up to now devoted forty years [to them] after I first learned the Alphabetum; and I was always studious. Apart from two of these forty years I was always [engaged] in study [or at a place of study], and I had many expenses just as others commonly have. Nevertheless, provided I had first composed a compendium, I am certain that within quarter or half a year I could directly teach a solicitous and confident person whatever I know of these sciences and languages. And it is known that no one worked in so many sciences and languages as I did, nor so much as I did. Indeed, when I was living in the other state of life [as a Magister], people marveled that I survived the abundance of my work. And still, I was just as involved in studies afterwards, as I had been before. But I did not work all that much, since in the pursuit of Wisdom this was not required.

„The strongest argument proves nothing so long as the conclusions are not verified by experience.“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Tertium

OQHI, 43 http://www.mlat.uzh.ch/MLS/text.php?tabelle=Rogerus_Baco_cps4&rumpfid=Rogerus_Baco_cps4,%20Opus%20tertium,%20%2013&level=3&corpus=4&lang=0&current_title=Opus%20tertium&links=&inframe=1&hide_apparatus= as cited in: James J. Walsch (1911) """"Science at the Medieval Universities"""" in: Popular Science, May 1911, p. 449 http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Popular_Science_Monthly_Volume_78.djvu/459
Opus Tertium, c. 1267
Добавить примечание: (la) [H]aec vocatur scientia experimentalis, quae negligit argumenta, quoniam non certificant, quantumcunque sint fortia, nisi simul adsit experientia conclusionis. Et ideo haec docet experiri conclusiones nobiles omnium scientiarum, quae in aliis scientiis aut probantur per argumenta, aut investigantur per experientias naturales et imperfectas...
Контексте: The strongest argument proves nothing so long as the conclusions are not verified by experience. Experimental science is the queen of sciences, and the goal of all speculation.

„If in other sciences we should arrive at certainty without doubt and truth without error, it behooves us to place the foundations of knowledge in mathematics…“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Majus

Bk. 1, ch. 4. Translated by Robert B. Burke, in: Edward Grant (1974) Source Book in Medieval Science. Harvard University Press. p. 93
Opus Majus, c. 1267

„I use the example of the rainbow and of the phenomena connected with it, of which sort are the circle around the sun and the stars, likewise the rod lying at the side of the sun or of a star which appears to the eye in a straight line… called the rod by Seneca, and the circle is called the corona, which often has the colors of the rainbow. But neither Aristotle nor Avicenna, in their Natural Histories, has given us knowledge of things of this sort, nor has Seneca, who composed a special book on them. But Experimental Science makes certain of them. [The experimenter] considers rowers and he finds the same colors in the falling drops dripping from the raised oars when the solar rays penetrate drops of this sort. It is the same with waters falling from the wheels of a mill; and when a man sees the drops of dew in summer of a morning lying on the grass in the meadow or the field, he will see the colors. And in the same way when it rains, if he stands in a shady place and if the rays beyond it pass through dripping moisture, then the colors will appear in the shadow nearby; and very frequently of a night colors appear around the wax candle. Moreover, if a man in summer, when he rises from sleep and while his eyes are yet only partly opened, looks suddenly toward an aperture through which a ray of the sun enters, he will see colors. And if, while seated beyond the sun, he extend his hat before his eyes, he will see colors; and in the same way if he closes his eye, the same thing happens under the shade of the eyebrow; and again, the same phenomenon occurs through a glass vessel filled with water, placed in the rays of the sun. Or similarly if any one holding water in his mouth sprinkles it vigorously into the rays and stands to the side of the rays; and if rays in the proper position pass through an oil lamp hanging in the air, so that the light falls on the surface of the oil, colors will be produced. And so in an infinite number of ways, as well natural as artificial, colors of this sort appear, as the careful experimenter is able to discover.“

—  Roger Bacon, книга Opus Majus

6th part Experimental Science, Ch.2 Tr. Richard McKeon, Selections from Medieval Philosophers Vol.2 Roger Bacon to William of Ockham
Opus Majus, c. 1267

„Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Etiam egestas wisi a erat. Morbi imperdiet, mauris ac auctor dictum.“

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