Уильям Оккам цитаты

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Уильям Оккам

Дата рождения: 1287
Дата смерти: 10. Апрель 1347
Другие имена:Wilhelm von Occam

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Уи́льям О́ккам — английский философ, францисканский монах из Оккама, маленькой деревни в графстве Суррей в Южной Англии. Сторонник номинализма, считал, что существует только индивидуальное, а универсалии существуют только благодаря абстрактному мышлению в человеческом уме, а помимо этого не обладают никакой метафизической сущностью. Считается одним из отцов современной эпистемологии и современной философии в целом, а также одним из величайших логиков всех времён.

Цитаты Уильям Оккам

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„The head of Christians does not, as a rule, have power to punish secular wrongs with a capital penalty and other bodily penalties and it is for thus punishing such wrongs that temporal power and riches are chiefly necessary; such punishment is granted chiefly to the secular power.“

— William of Ockham
Context: The head of Christians does not, as a rule, have power to punish secular wrongs with a capital penalty and other bodily penalties and it is for thus punishing such wrongs that temporal power and riches are chiefly necessary; such punishment is granted chiefly to the secular power. The pope therefore, can, as a rule, correct wrongdoers only with a spiritual penalty. It is not, therefore, necessary that he should excel in temporal power or abound in temporal riches, but it is enough that Christians should willingly obey him. "A Letter to the Friars Minor" (1334) as translated in A Letter to the Friars Minor and other Writings (1995) edited by A. S. McGrade and John Kilcullen, p. 204.

„You see that I have set out opposing assertions in response to your question and I have touched on quite strong arguments in support of each position. Therefore consider now which seems the more probable to you.“

— William of Ockham
Context: The Holy Spirit through blessed John the evangelist makes a terrible threat against those who add anything to or take anything from divine scripture when he says in the last chapter of Revelations [22:18–9], "If any man shall add to these things, God shall add unto him the plagues which are in this book. And if any man shall take away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take his part out of the book of life and out of the holy city, and from these things that are written in this book." We clearly gather from all these that nothing should be added to sacred scripture nor anything removed from it. To decide by way of teaching, therefore, which assertion should be considered catholic, which heretical, chiefly pertains to theologians, the experts on divine scripture. You see that I have set out opposing assertions in response to your question and I have touched on quite strong arguments in support of each position. Therefore consider now which seems the more probable to you. Vol. I, Book 1, Ch. 2.

„It is on account of theology alone that any assertion whatsoever should be called catholic or heretical.“

— William of Ockham
Context: It is on account of theology alone that any assertion whatsoever should be called catholic or heretical. For only an assertion which is consonant with theology is truly catholic, and only one which is known to be opposed to theology is known to be heretical. For if some assertion were found to be opposed to decrees of the highest pontiffs, or also of general councils or also to laws of the emperors, nevertheless, if it were not in conflict with theology, even if it could be considered false, erroneous or unjust, it should not be counted as a heresy. [http://www.britac.ac.uk/pubs/dialogus/t1d1.html Vol. I, Book 1, Ch. 2], as translated by John Kilcullen and John Scott (2003).

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