Роберт Оппенгеймер цитаты

Роберт Оппенгеймер фото
6  1

Роберт Оппенгеймер

Дата рождения: 22. Апрель 1904
Дата смерти: 18. Февраль 1967
Другие имена:Julius Robert Oppenheimer

Реклама

Джу́лиус Ро́берт О́ппенгеймер — американский физик-теоретик, профессор физики Калифорнийского университета в Беркли, член Национальной академии наук США . Широко известен как научный руководитель Манхэттенского проекта, в рамках которого в годы Второй мировой войны разрабатывались первые образцы ядерного оружия; из-за этого Оппенгеймера часто называют «отцом атомной бомбы». Aтомная бомба была впервые испытана в Нью-Мексико в июле 1945 года; позже Оппенгеймер вспоминал, что в тот момент ему пришли в голову слова из Бхагавадгиты:

После Второй мировой войны он стал руководителем Института перспективных исследований в Принстоне. Он также стал главным советником в новообразованной Комиссии США по атомной энергии и, используя своё положение, выступал в поддержку международного контроля над ядерной энергией с целью предотвращения распространения атомного оружия и ядерной гонки. Эта антивоенная позиция вызвала гнев ряда политических деятелей во время второй волны «Красной угрозы». В итоге, после широко известного политизированного слушания в 1954 году, он был лишён допуска к секретной работе. Не имея с тех пор прямого политического влияния, он продолжал читать лекции, писать труды и работать в области физики. Десять лет спустя президент Джон Кеннеди наградил учёного премией Энрико Ферми в знак политической реабилитации; награда была вручена уже после смерти Кеннеди Линдоном Джонсоном.

Наиболее значительные достижения Оппенгеймера в физике включают: приближение Борна — Оппенгеймера для молекулярных волновых функций, работы по теории электронов и позитронов, процесс Оппенгеймера — Филлипс в ядерном синтезе и первое предсказание квантового туннелирования. Вместе со своими учениками он внёс важный вклад в современную теорию нейтронных звёзд и чёрных дыр, а также в решение отдельных проблем квантовой механики, квантовой теории поля и физики космических лучей. Оппенгеймер был учителем и пропагандистом науки, отцом-основателем американской школы теоретической физики, получившей мировую известность в 30-е годы XX века.

Цитаты Роберт Оппенгеймер

„Если сияние тысячи солнц вспыхнуло бы в небе, это было бы подобно блеску Всемогущего... Я — Смерть, Разрушитель Миров.“

— Роберт Оппенгеймер
После испытания первой атомной бомбы в Нью-Мексико в июле 1945 года Оппенгеймер вспоминал, что в тот момент ему пришли в голову эти слова

Реклама

„To try to be happy is to try to build a machine with no other specification than that it shall run noiselessly.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Context: Everyone wants rather to be pleasing to women and that desire is not altogether, though it is very largely, a manifestation of vanity. But one cannot aim to be pleasing to women any more than one can aim to have taste, or beauty of expression, or happiness; for these things are not specific aims which one may learn to attain; they are descriptions of the adequacy of one's living. To try to be happy is to try to build a machine with no other specification than that it shall run noiselessly. Letter to his brother Frank (14 October 1929), published in Robert Oppenheimer : Letters and Recollections (1995) edited by Alice Kimball Smith, p. 136

Реклама

„We do not believe any group of men adequate enough or wise enough to operate without scrutiny or without criticism.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Context: We do not believe any group of men adequate enough or wise enough to operate without scrutiny or without criticism. We know that the only way to avoid error is to detect it, that the only way to detect it is to be free to enquire. We know that the wages of secrecy are corruption. We know that in secrecy error, undetected, will flourish and subvert. "Encouragement of Science" (Address at Science Talent Institute, 6 Mar 1950), Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, v.7, #1 (Jan 1951) p. 6-8

„I believe that through discipline, though not through discipline alone, we can achieve serenity, and a certain small but precious measure of the freedom from the accidents of incarnation, and charity, and that detachment which preserves the world which it renounces.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Context: I believe that through discipline, though not through discipline alone, we can achieve serenity, and a certain small but precious measure of the freedom from the accidents of incarnation, and charity, and that detachment which preserves the world which it renounces. I believe that through discipline we can learn to preserve what is essential to our happiness in more and more adverse circumstances, and to abandon with simplicity what would else have seemed to us indispensable; that we come a little to see the world without the gross distortion of personal desire, and in seeing it so, accept more easily our earthly privation and its earthly horror — But because I believe that the reward of discipline is greater than its immediate objective, I would not have you think that discipline without objective is possible: in its nature discipline involves the subjection of the soul to some perhaps minor end; and that end must be real, if the discipline is not to be factitious. Therefore I think that all things which evoke discipline: study, and our duties to men and to the commonwealth, war, and personal hardship, and even the need for subsistence, ought to be greeted by us with profound gratitude, for only through them can we attain to the least detachment; and only so can we know peace. Letter to his brother Frank (12 March 1932), published in Robert Oppenheimer : Letters and Recollections (1995) edited by Alice Kimball Smith, p. 155

„If atomic bombs are to be added as new weapons to the arsenals of a warring world, or to the arsenals of the nations preparing for war, then the time will come when mankind will curse the names of Los Alamos and Hiroshima. The people of this world must unite or they will perish.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Context: It is with appreciation and gratefulness that I accept from you this scroll for the Los Alamos Laboratory, and for the men and women whose work and whose hearts have made it. It is our hope that in years to come we may look at the scroll and all that it signifies, with pride. Today that pride must be tempered by a profound concern. If atomic bombs are to be added as new weapons to the arsenals of a warring world, or to the arsenals of the nations preparing for war, then the time will come when mankind will curse the names of Los Alamos and Hiroshima. The people of this world must unite or they will perish. This war that has ravaged so much of the earth, has written these words. The atomic bomb has spelled them out for all men to understand. Other men have spoken them in other times, and of other wars, of other weapons. They have not prevailed. There are some misled by a false sense of human history, who hold that they will not prevail today. It is not for us to believe that. By our minds we are committed, committed to a world united, before the common peril, in law and in humanity. Acceptance Speech, Army-Navy "Excellence" Award (16 November 1945)

„There must be no barriers to freedom of inquiry … There is no place for dogma in science. The scientist is free, and must be free to ask any question, to doubt any assertion, to seek for any evidence, to correct any errors.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Context: There must be no barriers to freedom of inquiry … There is no place for dogma in science. The scientist is free, and must be free to ask any question, to doubt any assertion, to seek for any evidence, to correct any errors. Our political life is also predicated on openness. We know that the only way to avoid error is to detect it and that the only way to detect it is to be free to inquire. And we know that as long as men are free to ask what they must, free to say what they think, free to think what they will, freedom can never be lost, and science can never regress. As quoted in "J. Robert Oppenheimer" by L. Barnett, in Life, Vol. 7, No. 9, International Edition (24 October 1949), p. 58; sometimes a partial version (the final sentence) is misattributed to Marcel Proust.

Реклама

„In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish, the physicists have known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Context: Despite the vision and farseeing wisdom of our wartime heads of state, the physicists have felt the peculiarly intimate responsibility for suggesting, for supporting, and in the end, in large measure, for achieving the realization of atomic weapons. Nor can we forget that these weapons, as they were in fact used, dramatized so mercilessly the inhumanity and evil of modern war. In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no humor, no overstatement can quite extinguish, the physicists have known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose. Physics in the Contemporary World, Arthur D. Little Memorial Lecture at M.I.T. (25 November 1947)

„There are children playing in the streets who could solve some of my top problems in physics, because they have modes of sensory perception that I lost long ago.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Quoted at Vision '65 "New Challenges for Human Communications" (21-23 October 1965) and published in v 65: New Challenges for human communications, Volume 4, International Center for the Typographic Arts, Southern Illinois University (1965), p. 221

„Science is not everything, but science is very beautiful.“

— Robert Oppenheimer
Last published words With Oppenheimer on an Autumn Day, Look, Vol. 30, No. 26 (19 December 1966)

Далее
Подобные авторы
Нильс Хенрик Давид Бор фото
Нильс Хенрик Давид Бор27
датский физик-теоретик и общественный деятель, один из со...
Вернер Карл Гейзенберг фото
Вернер Карл Гейзенберг7
немецкий физик-теоретик, один из создателей квантовой мех...
Эдвард Теллер фото
Эдвард Теллер
американский физик
Вальтер Грайнер
немецкий физик
Герш Ицкович Будкер
советский физик, академик АН СССР