Энвер Ходжа цитаты
Дата рождения: 16. Октябрь 1908
Дата смерти: 11. Апрель 1985
Энве́р Хали́ль Хо́джа — албанский политический деятель социалистической Албании в 1944—1985 годах. Народный Герой Албании.
Занимал посты Первого секретаря ЦК Албанской партии труда , Председателя Совета министров , министра иностранных дел и министра обороны Албании , также являясь верховным главнокомандующим вооружёнными силами .
Придя к власти, он сосредоточился на восстановлении страны, которая осталась в руинах после Второй Мировой Войны. За более чем сорок лет его правления были достигнуты успехи в развитии албанской экономики, образования и здравоохранения. Было осуществлено строительство первой железнодорожной линии Албании, в стране была создана система высшего образования , профессиональный театр, телевидение; уровень грамотности взрослых повысился с 5% до 98%, было достигнуто самообеспечение страны в области сельского хозяйства. Вместе с тем Ходжу критикуют за серию политических репрессий, которые включали создание и использование лагерей принудительного труда, внесудебные убийства и казни, направленные против антикоммунистов, большая часть которых была осуществлена тайной полицией Сигурими. С другой стороны, Ходжа вёл репрессивную внутреннюю политику, уничтожал «предполагаемые нелояльные элементы» среди членов правящей партии, ввёл полный запрет на любую религиозную деятельность и санкционировал массовое разрушение церквей. Действовала тайная полиция Сигурими.
Во внешней политике первоначально ориентировался на Югославию и СССР, встав на позицию последнего в советско-югославском конфликте. После начала десталинизации в СССР Албания разорвала с ним отношения и стала развивать тесное сотрудничество с маоистским Китаем. Но приход к власти реформистов в Китае привёл к разрыву отношений и с этой страной, в результате чего возникла фактически самобытная идеология ходжаизм, принятая также некоторыми организациями, считающими политику СССР и Китая «ревизионистской» и не соответствующей марксизму-ленинизму.
Цитаты Энвер Ходжа
„No force, no torture, no intrigue, no deception can eradicate Marxism-Leninism from the minds and hearts of men.“
— Enver Hoxha
Context: Nevertheless, Marxism-Leninism has not disappeared, it is living and flourishing as an ideology and a reality, materialized in the socialist social system constructed according to its teachings. Exemplifying this is socialist Albania, the Marxist-Leninist parties, and those millions and millions of workers and peasants who are fighting every day for the overthrow of the bourgeoisie, for democracy and national liberation. No force, no torture, no intrigue, no deception can eradicate Marxism-Leninism from the minds and hearts of men. Enver Hoxha (1980) Eurocommunism is Anti-communism https://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hoxha/works/euroco/env2-1.htm
„"Heroj Tito, druže Tito, naš Tito!" [Hero Tito, Comrade Tito, our Tito! ]. This impressed itself on me because we had heard this slogan from the Italian fascists when they shouted, "Duce a noi!" [The Duce is ours! ]. I was astonished how they could permit it.“
— Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha (1986) The Artful Albanian, (Chatto & Windus, London), ISBN 0701129700
„In Cambodia, the Cambodian people, communists and patriots, have risen against the barbarous government of Pol Pot, which was nothing but a group of provocateurs in the service of the imperialist bourgeoisie and of the Chinese revisionists, in particular, which had as its aim to discredit the idea of socialism in the international arena… The anti-popular line of that regime is confirmed, also, by the fact that the Albanian embassy in the Cambodian capital, the embassy of a country which has given the people of Cambodia every possible aid, was kept isolated, indeed, encircled with barbed wire, as if it were in a concentration camp. The other embassies, too, were in a similar situation. The Albanian diplomats have seen with their own eyes that the Cambodian people were treated inhumanly by the clique of Pol Pot and Yeng Sari. Pnom Pen was turned into a deserted city, empty of people, where food was difficult to secure even for the diplomats, where no doctors or even aspirins could be found. We think that the people and patriots of Cambodia waited too long before overthrowing this clique which was completely linked with Beijing and in its service.“
— Enver Hoxha
In regard to Cambodia, our Party and state have condemned the bloodthirsty activities of the Pol Pot clique, a tool of the Chinese social-imperialists. We hope that the Cambodian people will surmount the difficulties they are encountering as soon as possible and decide their own fate and future in complete freedom without any 'guardian'. (Selected Works Vol. VI, p. 419.)
„The canon of the Sharia and the Church, closely linked with the laws of the bourgeosie, treated women as a commodity, a thing to be bought and sold by the male… Just as the bourgeosie had made the worker into its proletarian, so had the savage ancient canons of the [shariah], the Church, feudalism and the bourgeosie, reduced woman to the proletariat of the man.“
„It didn't take long till the Titoites displayed dominating tendencies, expansionism and hegemonism in their relations with the newly founded states of people's democracy, especially in their relations with our country. As we know they sought to impose their anti-Marxist political, ideological, organisational and state views on us. They went so far as to make despicable attempts to transform Albania into a republic of Yugoslavia. In this unsuccessful and disgraceful undertaking the Titoites encountered our determined opposition. At first, our resistance was uncrystallised because we did not suspect that the Yugoslav leadership had set out on the capitalist and revisionist road. But after some years, when its hegemonic and expansionist tendencies were clearly displayed, we opposed them sternly and unreservedly.“
— Enver Hoxha
Enver Hoxha, Yugoslav "Self-Administration" - Capitalist Theory and Practice http://www.marxists.org/reference/archive/hoxha/works/1978/yugoslavia/index.htm (Against the anti-socialist views of E. Kardelj) in the book “Directions of the Development of the Political System of Socialist Self-Administration”), Institute of Marxist-Leninist studies of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Albania, Tirana, 1978.
„In order to continuously strengthen the defence of our country, it is necessary that we keep the military preparedness of all structures at a high level and perfect it day by day.“
— Enver Hoxha
"Albania is Forging Ahead Confidently and Unafraid", speech to a meeting of electors in Tirana (8 November 1978)
„Our people, small in numbers, have fought during their whole existence. [The British] have fought too, but the wars of our two people have been of different characters. Our country has been invaded many times, but we have always fought the enemies, we have driven them out and we have never mixed blood with them…“
„The Yugoslavs accuse us of allegedly being chauvinists, of interfering in their internal affairs, and of demanding a rectification of the Albanian -Yugoslav borders. A number of our friends think and imply that we Albanian communists swim in such waters. We tell our friends who think thus that they are grossly mistaken. We are not chauvinists, we have neither demanded nor demand rectification of boundaries. But what we demand and will continually demand from the Titoites, and we will expose them to the end for this, is that they give up perpetrating the crime of genocide against the Albanian minority in Kosova and Metohia, that they give up the white terror against the Albanians of Kosova, that they give up driving the Albanians from their native soil and deporting them 'en masse' to Turkey. We demand that the rights of the Albanian minority in Yugoslavia should be recognized according to the Constitution of the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Is this chauvinist or Marxist?“
„Our only "crime" is that in Bucharest we did not agree that a fraternal communist party like the Chinese Communist Party should be unjustly condemned; our only "crime" is that we had the courage to oppose openly, at an international communist meeting (and not in the marketplace) the unjust action of Comrade Khrushchev, our only "crime" is that we are a small Party of a small and poor country which, according to Comrade Khrushchev, should merely applaud and approve but express no opinion of its own. But this is neither Marxist nor acceptable. Marxism-Leninism has granted us the right to have our say and we will not give up this right for any one, neither on account of political and economic pressure nor on account of the threats and epithets that they might hurl at us. On this occasion we would like to ask Comrade Khrushchev why he did not make such a statement to us instead of to a representative of a third party. Or does Comrade Khrushchev think that the Party of Labor of Albania has no views of its own but has made common cause with the Communist Party of China in an unprincipled manner, and therefore, on matters pertaining to our Party, one can talk with the Chinese comrades? No, Comrade Khrushchev, you continue to blunder and hold very wrong opinions about our Party. The Party of Labor of Albania has its own views and will answer for them both to its own people as well as to the international communist and workers' movement.“
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